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the-fork-in-the-road_0

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From here, “The Story of Israel: A Biblical Theology”, by J. Scott Duvall, p 47 (but ultimately credited to Duane Christensen, Deuteronomy 21:10-34:12, Word Biblical Commentary 6B, page 680).

Here’s a quote from Scott:

… Just as obedience to Yahweh results in specific blessings, so too does disobedience yield specific curses.  There are numerous curses presented throughout the book of Deuteronomy.  Many of these curses fall under the ominous curse of Israel being defeated by her enemies and her subsequent exile into foreign lands.  Just as the blessings served to create a future for Israel, the curses threatened to dismantle all that could have been Israel’s.

In the structure of the book the curses also surround the Deuteronomic law code …

Curses – Deuteronomy 1-11 (4:9-28; 8:11-20; 11:16-17)

Deuteronomic Law Code – Deuteronomy 12-26

Curses – Deuteronomy 27-34 (27:15-26; 28:15-68; 31:16-32:51)

Duane Christensen has suggested that a chiasm appears in Deuteronomy 28, which serves to emphasize the totality of these curses in the demise of the nation of Israel.  The central point in the chiasm reverses the blessings promised earlier in Deuteronomy 28:4, 8, 11:

A  Triad of afflictions: curse, confusion, and cumbrance (Deut 28:20-22)

B  Agricultural Disaster (drought and hardening soil) (Deut 28:23-24)

C  War:  Defeat leading to Israel becoming an object lesson (Deut 28:25-26)

D  Boils of Egypt sent from Yahweh (Deut 28:27)

E  Madness and blindness (Deut 28:28-29a)

F  Oppressed and robbed all the days (Deut 28:29b)

Undoing of the blessings in 28:4, 8, 11 (Deut 28:30-31)

F’  Oppressed and crushed all the days (Deut 28:32-33)

E’  Madness from what one sees (Deut 28:34)

D’  Boils sent from Yahweh (Deut 28:35)

C’  War:  exile leading to Israel becoming an object lesson (Deut 28:36-37)

B’  Agricultural disaster (crop-destroying pests) (Deut 28:38-42)

A’  Economic collapse – impoverishment and debt (Deut 28:43-44)

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I’ve changed his center a little bit.  His F  X  F’ is now an F  G(1,2)  G'(1,2)  F (basically, I’ve created a G'(1,2) out of the first part of his F’).  I’ve also added verses 45-48 to his A’.  Verses 15-19, imo, could have been added to A as well.

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15  “But it shall come about, if you do not obey the Lord your God, to observe to do all His commandments and His statutes with which I charge you today, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you:  16  “Cursed shall you be in the city, and cursed shall you be in the country.  17  “Cursed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl.  18  “Cursed shall be the offspring of your body and the produce of your ground, the increase of your herd and the young of your flock.  19  “Cursed shall you be when you come in, and cursed shall you be when you go out. 

A    [Me: disobedience, destruction:]  20  “The Lord will send upon you curses, confusion, and rebuke, in all you undertake to do, until you are destroyed and until you perish quickly, on account of the evil of your deeds, because you have forsaken Me21  The Lord will make the pestilence cling to you until He has consumed you from the land where you are entering to possess it.  22  The Lord will smite you with consumption and with fever and with inflammation and with fiery heat and with the sword and with blight and with mildew, and they will pursue you until you perish

B    [Me: agricultural disaster – the cause:]  23  The heaven which is over your head shall be bronze, and the earth which is under you, iron.  24  The Lord will make the rain of your land powder and dust; from heaven it shall come down on you until you are destroyed

C    [Me: War – the act itself:]  25  “The Lord shall cause you to be defeated before your enemies; you will go out one way against them, but you will flee seven ways before them, and you will be an example of terror to all the kingdoms of the earth.  26  Your carcasses will be food to all birds of the sky and to the beasts of the earth, and there will be no one to frighten them away. 

D    27  “The Lord will smite you with the boils of Egypt and with tumors and with the scab and with the itch, from which you cannot be healed

E    28  The Lord will smite you with madness and with blindness and with bewilderment of heart;  29  and you will grope at noon, as the blind man gropes in darkness,

F    and you will not prosper in your ways; but you shall only be oppressed and robbed  /  continually, with none to save you. 

G   

1    [Me: family:]  30  You shall betroth a wife, but another man will violate her; you shall build a house, but you will not live in it;

2    [Me: land and possessions:]  you shall plant a vineyard, but you will not use its fruit31  Your ox shall be slaughtered before your eyes, but you will not eat of it; your donkey shall be torn away from you, and will not be restored to you; your sheep shall be given to your enemies, and you will have none to save you. 

G’  

1′   [Me: family]  32  Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people, while your eyes look on and yearn for them continually; but there will be nothing you can do. 

2′   [Me: refers to land and possessions:]  33  A people whom you do not know shall eat up the produce of your ground and all your labors,

F’   and you will never be anything but oppressed and crushed  /  continually

E’   34  You shall be driven mad  /  by the sight of what you see

D’   35  The Lord will strike you on the knees and legs with sore boils,  /  from which you cannot be healed, from the sole of your foot to the crown of your head. 

C’   [Me: war – the aftermath:]  36  The Lord will bring you and your king, whom you set over you, to a nation which neither you nor your fathers have known, and there you shall serve other gods, wood and stone.  37  You shall become a horror, a proverb, and a taunt among all the people where the Lord drives you. 

B’   [Me: agricultural disaster – the result:]  38  “You shall bring out much seed to the field but you will gather in little, for the locust will consume it.  39  You shall plant and cultivate vineyards, but you will neither drink of the wine nor gather the grapes, for the worm will devour them.  40  You shall have olive trees throughout your territory but you will not anoint yourself with the oil, for your olives will drop off.  41  You shall have sons and daughters but they will not be yours, for they will go into captivity.  42  The cricket shall possess all your trees and the produce of your ground

A’   [Me: disobedience, destruction:]  43  The alien who is among you shall rise above you higher and higher, but you will go down lower and lower.  44  He shall lend to you, but you will not lend to him; he shall be the head, and you will be the tail.  45  “So all these curses shall come on you and pursue you and overtake you until you are destroyed, because you would not obey the Lord your God by keeping His commandments and His statutes which He commanded you.  46  They shall become a sign and a wonder on you and your descendants forever.  47  “Because you did not serve the Lord your God with joy and a glad heart, for the abundance of all things;  48  therefore you shall serve your enemies whom the Lord will send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness, and in the lack of all things; and He will put an iron yoke on your neck until He has destroyed you.

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jesus-seven-candlesticks

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The detailed, central D E F G F’ E’ D’ section of the chiasmus is from this web site.  I’ve expanded it with A B C and C’ B’ A’.  Over all the chiasmus can be summarized as follows:

A    A message to the 7 churches

B    John hears

C    John sees

D E F G F’ E’ D’   The vision of Jesus in detail – with a ~loud ‘voice’ at the center.

C’   John sees

B’   John hears

A’    7 messages to the 7 churches

Perhaps the singular message to the seven churches in A should be kept in mind when reading the 7 separate messages in A’.  A is actually a chiasmus, though I haven’t presented it as such here (next post?).  The center of the A chiasmus emphasizes the church as a kingdom, made up of priests.  It’s very positive and helps to counterbalance some of the criticisms in A’.

I like B C C’ B’ (seeing and hearing).  These are the basic elements in John’s experience of the revelation.  John ‘sees’ and ‘hears’.  This perhaps also explains the match in E/E’: eyes (seeing) and mouth (voice/hearing).

B and B’ both contain quotes.  Included in each quote is the approximate statement, ~’write in a book/write the things you have seen’.  Both quotes end by referencing the seven churches.

I think the center is fitting.  It emphasizes the all-important ‘voice’ John hears – which is “like the sound of many waters” (see 1:10a).  …  A nice center, imo.

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[Me:  Revelation Intro (not part of the chiasmus):]    1:1  The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show to His bond-servants, the things which must soon take place; and He sent and communicated it by His angel to His bond-servant John,  2  who testified to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw.  3  Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near.

A    [Me: A message to the 7 churches:]    4  John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne,  and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth.  To Him who loves us and released us from our sins by His blood –  and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father – to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.  Behold, He is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over Him. So it is to be. Amen.  “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”

B    [Me: John hearing:]    9  I, John, your brother and fellow partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and perseverance which are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.  10  I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like the sound of a trumpet,  /  saying: Write in a book what you see, and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus and to Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatira and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea.

C    [Me: John seeing:]    Then I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me. And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands; and in the middle of the lampstands I saw one like a son of man, clothed in a robe reaching to the feet, and girded across His chest with a golden sash. 

D    14  His headand His hair –  /  were white like white wool, like snow;

E    and His eyes were like a flame of fire. 

F    15  His feet were like burnished bronze, when it has been made to glow in a furnace,

G    and His voice was like the sound of many waters

F’   16  In His right hand He held seven stars,

E’   and out of His mouth came a sharp two-edged sword;

D’   and His face  /  was like the sun shining in its strength.

C’   [Me: John seeing:]    17  When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man.

B’   [Me: John hearing:]    And He placed His right hand on me, saying: “Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last,  18  and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.  19  Therefore write the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will take place after these things.  20  As for the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

A’    [Me: 7 separate messages to the 7 churches (2:1-3:22 … excerpts):]    2:1  “To the angel of the church in Ephesus write:    …  …  2:8  “And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write:  …  …  2:12  “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write:  …  …  2:18  “And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write:  …  …  3:1  “To the angel of the church in Sardis write:  …  …  3:7  “And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write:  …  …  3:14  “To the angel of the church in Laodicea write:  … .

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071-1

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From the book “Deuteronomy”, by Gary Harlan Hall, p. 163.  Available at Amazon.

Here’s a quote and outline from the book:

Deuteronomy 8 is one of the most carefully constructed sermons in the entire book [Me: of Deuteronomy], making the most of the rhetorical device of chiastic structure.  The sermon clearly develops a line of thought up to verse 11, which states the main idea and marks the focus of the chiasm.  The second half develops away from the focal point through a repetition of the same details as found in the first half.  …

Introduction: 1

A.  Manna to test you, so remember – 2-3

B.  God led you in the wilderness – 4-5

C.  The blessings of the land – 6-9

D. Satisfaction brings praise – 10

E.  Do not forget – 11

D’.  Satisfaction brings a warning – 12a

C’.  The blessings of the good land – 12b-14

B’.  Leading in the wilderness – 15

A’.  The manna to test you, so remember – 16-18

E’.  Do not forget – 19-20

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I’ve made a number of changes.  The center went from an E to a double G/G’.

I’ve taken the beginning introduction and matched it with the end E’, creating a brand new A/A’.  Both A1 and A’1 match the center (A1 and G’ refer to commandments, while A’1 and G’ refer to remembering).  Having the beginning and end match the center is a common chiastic technique.  A2 is a blessing, while A’2 is a curse. Whether the people are blessed or cursed depend on their obedience to God’s commandments.  The beginning, center, and end gives us the main point of the chiasmus:  obeying God’s commandments.

I’ve also created a new D/D’.  These sections reflect the people’s hearts, or minds.  They contrast.  In D, the people fear God.  In D’ the people forget God.  …  D and D’ are placed between sections on the wilderness and the promised land.

Overall, I think this is a pretty nice chiasmus.

_____

 

A   

1    1  “All the commandments that I am commanding you today you shall be careful to do,

2    that you may live and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the Lord swore to give to your forefathers. 

B   

1    2  You shall remember all the way which the Lord your God has led you in the wilderness these forty years,   a   that He might humble you, testing you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not.  3  He humbled you and let you be hungry,   b   and fed you with manna which you did not know, nor did your fathers know,

2    [Me:  ~Reliance on self vs. reliance on God; the importance of God]    that He might make you understand that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the Lord

C    [Me: “forty years” = wilderness.  See v. 1: “in the wilderness these forty years”]    4  Your clothing did not wear out on you, nor did your foot swell these forty years.  5  Thus you are to know in your heart that the Lord your God was disciplining you just as a man disciplines his son. 

D    Therefore, you shall keep the commandments of the Lord your God, to walk in His ways and to fear Him.

E    For the Lord your God is bringing you into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and springs, flowing forth in valleys and hills;  8  a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey;  9  a land where you will eat food without scarcity, in which you will not lack anything; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills you can dig copper

F    10  When you have eaten and are satisfied,

G    [Me: Respect God]    you shall bless the Lord your God for the good land which He has given you.

G’   [Me: Do not disrespect God]    11  “Beware that you do not forget the Lord your God by not keeping His commandments and His ordinances and His statutes which I am commanding you today

F’   12  otherwise, when you have eaten and are satisfied,

E’   and have built good houses and lived in them,  13  and when your herds and your flocks multiply, and your silver and gold multiply, and all that you have multiplies

D’   14  then your heart will become proud and you will forget the Lord your God

C’   who brought you out from the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.  15  He led you through the great and terrible wilderness, with its fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty ground where there was no water; He brought water for you out of the rock of flint. 

B’  

1    16  In the wilderness   b’   He fed you manna which your fathers did not know,   a’   that He might humble you and that He might test you, to do good for you in the end. 

2   [Me:  ~Reliance on self vs. reliance on God; the importance of God]   17  Otherwise, you may say in your heart, ‘My power and the strength of my hand made me this wealth.’  18  But you shall remember the Lord your God, for it is He who is giving you power to make wealth, that He may confirm His covenant which He swore to your fathers, as it is this day. 

A’  

1    19  It shall come about if you ever forget the Lord your God and go after other gods and serve them and worship them,

2    I testify against you today that you will surely perish20  Like the nations that the Lord makes to perish before you, so you shall perish; because you would not listen to the voice of the Lord your God.

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rest-here_esther-simpson

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The following chiasmus is from here.

I’ve made a few changes.  I’ve changed his A to an A/B and his A’ to a B’/A’.  I’ve moved the end of his B section into C (my D1).  And finally,  I’ve created a spot of paralleling in his C and C’ sections (which is now my D1/D2/D’1/D’2). D1 and D’1 are negative descriptions of destruction, while D2 and D’2 are positive descriptions of peace and healing.

Here’s a quote offering a little more explanation:

Like most psalms, Psalm 46 originated in the life of the Israelite community. It was sung and recited long before it was ever written down, it’s poetic style shaped by confidence in God’s protection from threats, whether from other nations or “Mother Nature.”  In the face of a long history of threats and set backs faced by the Jewish community, God was with them, offering his provision and protection.

Robert Alden created a chiasm of Psalm 46 which pulls out some interesting features from its verses:

1      A  God is refuge.

2              B  No fear.

3-4                         C  God rules over natural calamities.

5                                       D  God is here.

6a                                               E  Nations rage.

6b                                               E  God speaks.

7                                       D  God is here.

8-9                          C  God rules over political calamities.

10                 B  Be still.

11        A  God is refuge.

Notice (B) “No fear” and “be still” are complementary, while (E) “nations rage” and “God speaks” contrast humanity’s actions with God’s actions. Verse 7 echoes verse 5, “God is here” (D), as though it were being underscored.  In verse 10, God sends a powerful message to the nations–to be still and submit to his reign.  … …  [H]e commands us all to “be still”– a quiet reminder that our ultimate confidence and security is in the power and presence of God.  Only then can we truly rest in his presence.

 

For the choir director.  A Psalm of the sons of Korah, set to Alamoth.  A Song.

A    1  God is our refuge and strength,

B    a very present help in trouble. 

C    2  Therefore we will not fear,

D

1    though the earth should change and though the mountains slip into the heart of the sea3  though its waters roar and foam, though the mountains quake at its swelling pride.  Selah. 

2    4  There is a river whose streams make glad the city of God, the holy dwelling places of the Most High. 

E    5  God is in the midst of her,  /  she will not be moved; God will help her when morning dawns

F    6  The nations made an uproar,  /  the kingdoms tottered;

F’   He raised His voice,  /  the earth melted

E’   7  The Lord of hosts is with us;  /  the God of Jacob is our stronghold. Selah. 

D’  

1   8  Come, behold the works of the Lord, who has wrought desolations in the earth

2   9  He makes wars to cease to the end of the earth; He breaks the bow and cuts the spear in two; He burns the chariots with fire

C’   10  Cease striving and know that I am God – I will be exalted among the nations, I will be exalted in the earth.” 

B’   11  The Lord of hosts is with us;

A’   the God of Jacob is our stronghold. Selah.

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1024px-Anastasis_at_Chora

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This particular chiasmus comes from here.  The attribution at the bottom of the page is to:  Craig S. Keener, the IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, Intervarsity Press, Downes Grove, I, Illinois, 1993.

The book can be found here at Google books, and here at Amazon.

I like the theme of salvation at the center.  It makes the center strong.

I think D/D’ is interesting.  It seems one of the purposes of Jesus’ ‘making proclamation to the spirits in prison’ (D) may have been to have ‘angels, authorities, and powers’ subjected to Himself (D’).  I also like the implied match between Hades below and Heaven above.

There’s a lot of concepts packed in here: judgment, our suffering/witness, Jesus’ suffering, Hades/Heaven, ordering of power, salvation … .  Plenty to contemplate.  Nice.

Here’s the summary from the book:

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 1 Peter 3.16 4.5

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(A?)    13  Who is there to harm you if you prove zealous for what is good?  14  But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled,  15  but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence;   

A    16  and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered,  /  those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame. 

B    17  For it is better, if God should will it so, that you suffer  /  for doing what is right rather than for doing what is wrong. 

C    18  For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death  /  in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; 

D    [Me: Jesus goes to Hades]  19  in which also He went and made proclamation to the spirits now in prison

E    20  who once were disobedient, when the patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through the water. 

E’   21  Corresponding to that, baptism now saves you—not the removal of dirt from the flesh, but an appeal to God for a good conscience—through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 

D’   22  who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, after angels and authorities and powers had been subjected to Him

C’   4:1 Therefore, since Christ has suffered  in the flesh,

B’   arm yourselves also with the same purpose – because he who has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin,  2  so as to live the rest of the time in the flesh no longer for the lusts of men, but for the will of God

A’   3  or the time already past is sufficient for you to have carried out the desire of the Gentiles, having pursued a course of sensuality, lusts, drunkenness, carousing, drinking parties and abominable idolatries.  4  In all this, they are surprised that you do not run with them into the same excesses of dissipation, and they malign you;  /  but they will give account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead. 

For the gospel has for this purpose been preached even to those who are dead, that though they are judged in the flesh as men, they may live in the spirit according to the will of God. 

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deuteronomy

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From the book, “Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy”, by Stephen K. Sherwood.  The book and chiasmus can be found here at Google books – p. 268.  The book can also be found here at Amazon.

Here’s a couple quotes:

Wenham and McConville (1980) call attention to structural elements that tie these verses together:  …  …  3. the six punishments are arranged in chiastic order; and 4. the six cases are arranged in two groups of three each – a triadic division that is used in both Leviticus and Deuteronomy.

Chiastic ordering of punishments:

19    A    damages of one hundred shekels to father, no divorce

21    B    woman executed

22    C    man and woman executed

24    C’   man and woman executed

25    B’   man executed

29    A’   damages of fifty shekels to father, no divorce

“The combination of parallel paneling and chiasmus give this section a notable coherence and compactness suggestive of careful drafting”

_____

A    13  “If any man takes a wife and goes in to her and then turns against her,  14  and charges her with shameful deeds and publicly defames her, and says, ‘I took this woman, but when I came near her, I did not find her a virgin,’  15  then the girl’s father and her mother shall take and bring out the evidence of the girl’s virginity to the elders of the city at the gate.  16  “And the girl’s father shall say to the elders, ‘I gave my daughter to this man for a wife, but he turned against her;  17  and behold, he has charged her with shameful deeds, saying, “I did not find your daughter a virgin.” But this is the evidence of my daughter’s virginity. ‘And they shall spread the garment before the elders of the city.  18  “So the elders of that city shall take the man and chastise him,  19  and they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver and give it to the girl’s father, because he publicly defamed a virgin of Israel. And she shall remain his wife; he cannot divorce her all his days.

   20  “But if this charge is true, that the girl was not found a virgin,  21  then they shall bring out the girl to the doorway of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her to death because she has committed an act of folly in Israel, by playing the harlot in her father’s house; thus you shall purge the evil from among you.

C    22  “If a man is found lying with a married woman, then both of them shall die, the man who lay with the woman, and the woman; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel.

C’   23  “If there is a girl who is a virgin engaged to a man, and another man finds her in the city and lies with her,  24  then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city and you shall stone them to death; the girl, because she did not cry out in the city, and the man, because he has violated his neighbor’s wife. Thus you shall purge the evil from among you.

B’   25  “But if in the field the man finds the girl who is engaged, and the man forces her and lies with her, then only the man who lies with her shall die.  26  “But you shall do nothing to the girl; there is no sin in the girl worthy of death, for just as a man rises against his neighbor and murders him, so is this case.  27  “When he found her in the field, the engaged girl cried out, but there was no one to save her.

A’   28  “If a man finds a girl who is a virgin, who is not engaged, and seizes her and lies with her and they are discovered,  29  then the man who lay with her shall give to the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall become his wife because he has violated her; he cannot divorce her all his days.

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Judges Gavel

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The following chiasmus is from Douglas Moo’s commentary, “Romans: The NIV Application Commentary: From Biblical Text to Contemporary Life”.  The commentary can be found here at Google Books, and here at Amazon.  Douglas’ website is here.

Here’s a quote:

God Judges Every Human Being Impartially on the Same Basis (2:6-11)

This important paragraph supports a point that is implicit, but vital, to Paul’s indictment of self-righteous Jews in 2:1-5:  God assesses Jews and Gentiles on the same basis.  In effect, Paul argues, there is a level playing field when it comes to God’s ultimate verdict.  The Jew, therefore, simply by virtue of being a Jew cannot claim immunity from judgment.  The argument of these verses is clear and logical, following a pattern we label chiasm.  This word comes from the name for the Greek letter that looks much like our “X”.  It describes a structure in which the basic sequence follows an A-B-B’-A’ pattern.  Note how verses 6-11 fall into such a pattern:

A   God will judge everyone according to his works (v. 6)

B   People who do good will attain eternal life (v .7)

C   People who do evil will suffer wrath (v. 8)

C’  Wrath for those who do evil (v. 9)

B’  Glory for those who do good (v. 10)

A’  God judges impartially (v. 11)

Sometimes in a chiasm, the main point comes at the center.  In this case, however, the main point appears at the outer edges.

Moo’s last point is worth considering.  The main point is not always at the center.  In the end, it’s up to the discretion of the writer.  The chiastic writer has options.

I’ve refined Moo’s chiasmus a little bit by adding the following lower-case connections:  a bb’ a’, a bb’ a’, a bb’ a’.

I would also like to point out the phrase, “of the Jew first and also the Greek”, which occurs twice in the chiasmus.  Interestingly, the phrase appears at the end of the two matches: B/B’ (regarding good) and C/C’ (regarding evil).  Even though the two occurrences of the phrase do not appear chiastically balanced overall, they are still reasonably / logically placed within the chiasmus.

_____

2:1  Therefore you have no excuse, everyone of you who passes judgment, for in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things.  2  And we know that the judgment of God rightly falls upon those who practice such things.  3  But do you suppose this, O man, when you pass judgment on those who practice such things and do the same yourself, that you will escape the judgment of God?  4  Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and tolerance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance?  5  But because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart you are storing up wrath for yourself in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment

A

a    5  of God,

b    6  who WILL RENDER TO EACH PERSON ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS:

B

a    7  to those who by perseverance in doing good

b    seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life;

C

a    8  but to those who are selfishly ambitious and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness,

b    wrath and indignation.

C’

b’   9  There will be tribulation and distress

a’   for every soul of man who does evil – of the Jew first and also the Greek,

B ‘

b’   10  but glory and honor and peace

a’   to everyone who does good – to the Jew first and also the Greek. 

A’

b’   11  for there is no partiality

a’   with God.

 

 

 

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