Archive for the ‘Gospel of Mark’ Category



The following excerpt is from James L. Resseguie‘s book, “Narrative Criticism of the New Testament”, p. 58-60.  The excerpt is part of the book’s explanation for  “Chiasm (Chiasmus)”.

The book can be found here at Google Books, and here at Amazon.

The examples are short, but I enjoyed them.  I particularly liked his treatment of Luke 22:42 and Ephesians 1:2; 6:23-24.  Hopefully you’ll enjoy them as well.  🙂

The word chiasm is derived from the Greek letter chi (written X), which symbolizes the crossover pattern of words, phrases, clauses, or ideas that are repeated in reverse order.  The simplest type of chiasm is A B B’ A’ – a structure that comes full circle by highlighting key concepts in reverse order.  A chiastic pattern in Mark 2:27, for instance, keeps the reader’s or hearer’s attention focused on the main concepts.

A  The sabbath was made

B  for humankind

B’  not humankind

A’  for the sabbath.

Chiasms may draw attention to a theological or ideological perspective.  Jesus’ prayer in the garden of Gethsemane is an example of literary artistry at its best.  The literary form reinforces the theological perspective.  In Luke 22:42, for example:

A  Father, if you are willing.

B  remove this cup from me;

B’  yet not my will

A’  but yours be done.

The first person singular (me, my) is placed within the second person singular (you, yours), which visually underscores that Jesus’ will is completely enclosed within the will of the Father.  This becomes a model prayer for all: our will needs to be conformed to God’s will, not the other way around.

Paul uses chiasms to wrap together an entire book with key theological concepts.  In the Letter to the Ephesians he brackets his correspondence with the words “grace” and “peace” (also in 2 Thess. 1:2 and 3:16, 18).

A    Grace to you

B  and peace

B’  Peace be to the whole community. …

A’  Grace be with all who have an undying love for our Lord Jesus Christ

(Eph. 1:2; 6:23, 24)

Paul comes full circle, underscoring an important theological perspective: where there is grace, there is peace, and where there is peace, there is evidence of God’s grace.  Paul also uses interlocking chiasms to highlight the mystery of the Christian faith.  In 1 Tim. 3:16, for example, an interlocking pattern  explains “the mystery of our religion.”

[Jesus] was revealed in flesh,

vindicated in spirit,

seen by angels,

proclaimed among Gentiles,

believed in throughout the world,

taken up in glory.

Two sets of overlapping chiasms bring two separate worlds together – this world and the world above.  One set – flesh (A), spirit (B), angels (B’), Gentiles (A’) – is joined by a second set – angels (A) Gentiles (B), world (B’), glory (A’).  The interlocking pattern suggests that Jesus brings together in balanced harmony two worlds that were separated or at odds with each other.



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This post looks briefly at the tendency of both Homer  (author of the Illiad and Odyssey) and Mark (the Gospel of Mark) to answer questions – or comments – chiastically …

First, Homer, from here (note the nice clear matches 🙂 ):

… both Illiad and Odyssey contain a series of questions which is answered in exactly reversed order: Antinous’ three questions to Noemon (Od. 4.642-56); Hecabe’s several questions to Hector (Il. 6. 254-85); and, in the most elaborate example of this device, Odysseus’ seven questions to his mother Anticleia in Hades (Od. 11. 170-203). Here is an example quoted in diagrammatic form from Steve Reece:

Od. 11. 170-203:

A.  What killed you?  (171)

B.  A long sickness?  (172)

C.  Or Artemis with her arrows?  (172-73)

D.  How is my father?  (174)

E.  How is my son?  (174)

F.  Are my possessions safe?  (175-76)

G.  Has my wife been faithful?  (177-79)

G’.  Your wife has been faithful.  (181-83)

F’.  Your possessions are safe.  (184)

E’.  Your son is thriving.  (184-87)

D’.  Your father is alive but in poor condition.  (187-96)

C’.  Artemis did not kill me with her arrows.  (198-99)

B’.  Nor did a sickness kill me.  (200-201)

A’.  But my longing for you killed me.  (202-3)


Mark also liked to answer questions or comments chiastically.  Following are two examples:

Mark 3:22-30:

A    22  And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,”

B    and “He casts out the demons  /  by the ruler of the demons.”

B’   23  And He called them to Himself and began speaking to them in parables, “How can Satan  /  cast out  /  Satan?  24  “And if a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.  25  “And if a house is divided against itself, that house will not be able to stand.  26  “And if Satan has risen up against himself and is divided, he cannot stand, but he is finished!  27  “But no one can enter the strong man’s house and plunder his property unless he first binds the strong man, and then he will plunder his house. 

A’   28  “Truly I say to you, all sins shall be forgiven the sons of men, and whatever blasphemies they utter;  29  but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin”  —  30  because they were saying, “He has an unclean spirit.”

And, Mark 13:1-37:

1  And as He was going out of the temple, one of His disciples said^ to Him, “Teacher, behold what wonderful stones and what wonderful buildings!”
2  And Jesus said to him, “Do you see these great buildings? Not one stone shall be left upon another which will not be torn down.”
3  And as He was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew were questioning Him privately,

A    4  “Tell us, when will these things be,

B    and what will be the sign when all these things are going to be fulfilled?”

B’   [Me:  a list of signs:]    5  And Jesus began to say to them, “See to it that no one misleads you.  6  “Many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am He!’ and will mislead many.  7  “And when you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be frightened; those things must take place; but that is not yet the end.  8  “For nation will arise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; there will be earthquakes in various places; there will also be famines. These things are merely the beginning of birth pangs.  9  “But be on your guard; for they will deliver you to the courts, and you will be flogged in the synagogues, and you will stand before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them.  10  “And the gospel must first be preached to all the nations.  11  “And when they arrest you and deliver you up, do not be anxious beforehand about what you are to say, but say whatever is given you in that hour; for it is not you who speak, but it is the Holy Spirit.  12  “And brother will deliver brother to death, and a father his child; and children will rise up against parents and have them put to death.  13  “And you will be hated by all on account of My name, but the one who endures to the end, he shall be saved.  14  “But when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION standing where it should not be (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.  15  “And let him who is on the housetop not go down, or enter in, to get anything out of his house;  16  and let him who is in the field not turn back to get his cloak.  17  “But woe to those who are with child and to those who nurse babes in those days!  18  “But pray that it may not happen in the winter.  19  “For those days will be a time of tribulation such as has not occurred since the beginning of the creation which God created, until now, and never shall.  20  “And unless the Lord had shortened those days, no life would have been saved; but for the sake of the elect whom He chose, He shortened the days.  21  “And then if anyone says to you, ‘Behold, here is the Christ’; or, ‘Behold, He is there’; do not believe him;  22  for false Christs and false prophets will arise, and will show signs and wonders, in order, if possible, to lead the elect astray.  23  “But take heed; behold, I have told you everything in advance.  /// 24  “But in those days, after that tribulation, THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED, AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT,  25  AND THE STARS WILL BE FALLING from heaven, and the powers that are in the heavens will be shaken.  26  “And then they will see THE SON OF MAN COMING IN CLOUDS with great power and glory.  27  “And then He will send forth the angels, and will gather together His elect from the four winds, from the farthest end of the earth, to the farthest end of heaven.

A’   [Me:  The ‘when question’ is answered:]   28  “Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when its branch has already become tender, and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near.  29  “Even so, you too, when you see these things happening, recognize that He is near, right at the door.  30  “Truly I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.  31  “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away.  32  “But of that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone.  33  “Take heed, keep on the alert; for you do not know when the appointed time is.  34  “It is like a man, away on a journey, who upon leaving his house and putting his slaves in charge, assigning to each one his task, also commanded the doorkeeper to stay on the alert.  35  “Therefore, be on the alert– for you do not know when the master of the house is coming, whether in the evening, at midnight, at cockcrowing, or in the morning  —  36  lest he come suddenly and find you asleep.  37  “And what I say to you I say to all, ‘Be on the alert!'”


I thought it a bit interesting. 

In our modern western culture, we have a tendency to answer questions in the order they’re asked.


If you’re interested, Mark 3:22-30 (the first Markan example above) is part of a larger chiasmus containing a number of smaller chiasmi:


Mark 13:5-23 (part of the second Markan example above) is also a chiasmus:


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From here.

I’ve turned his D/D’ center into a D/E/F/E’/D’ center. 


A    21  And they went^ into Capernaum;

B    and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach.  22  And they were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

C    23  And just then there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,

D    24  saying, “What do we have to do with You, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us?

E    I know who You are– the Holy One of God!”

F’   25  And Jesus rebuked him,

E’   saying, “Be quiet,

D’   and come out of him!

C’   26  And throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit  /  cried out with a loud voice, and came out of him.

B’   27  And they were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.

A’   28  And immediately the news about Him went out everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

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B and B’ are interested.  In B, Jesus lists the final 6 of the ’10 commandments’.  In this list he places the 5th commandment (“Honor your father and mother”) in the 10th (last) position.  I think he does this to give it emphasis.  The commandment is given the final position in a list – a position of importance.  In B’, we find 2 small reflective chiasmi, where “father and mother” and “mother” are at the center of the chiasmi – once again, in a chiasmus, a position of emphasis.  …  In both B and B’, father and mother recieve positional emphasis.   In my opinion, this is, in part, because the author wants to emphasis the overall B/B’ chiastic match.    In both B and B’, the importance of mother and father are emphasized.  A match – and idea or theme – is made clearer. 

Related to the above, I do find it interesting that in the second mini-chiasmus in B’, “father” is left out.  I’m not sure how important this is.  For me, it’s at least interesting.  Why would Mark leave it out? 

The center section is strong.  God is needed when it comes to salvation.  I assume this is a reference to the need of the cross – the crux of the matter.



A    17  And as He was setting out on a journey, a man ran up to Him and knelt before Him, and began asking Him, “Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?

B    18  And Jesus said to him, “Why do you call Me good? No one is good except God alone.  19  “You know the commandments, ‘DO NOT MURDER, DO NOT COMMIT ADULTERY, DO NOT STEAL, DO NOT BEAR FALSE WITNESS, Do not defraud, HONOR YOUR FATHER AND MOTHER.'”  20  And he said to Him, “Teacher, I have kept all these things from my youth up.” 

C    21  And looking at him, Jesus felt a love for him, and said to him, “One thing you lack: go and sell all you possess, and give to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven; and come, follow Me.”  22  But at these words his face fell, and he went away grieved, for he was one who owned much property.

D    23  And Jesus, looking around, said^ to His disciples, “How hard it will be for those who are wealthy to enter the kingdom of God!”  24  And the disciples were amazed at His words. 

But Jesus answered^ again and said^ to them, “Children, how hard it is to enter the kingdom of God!  25  “It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.”  26  And they were even more astonished and said to Him,

…  “Then who can be saved?”  27  Looking upon them, Jesus said^, “With men it is impossible, but not with God; for all things are possible with God.”

C’   28  Peter began to say to Him, “Behold, we have left everything and followed You.” 

B’   29  Jesus said, “Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left  (a)  house or  (b)  brothers or sisters or  (c)  mother or father or  (b’)  children or  (a’)  farms, for My sake and for the gospel’s sake,  30  but that he shall receive a hundred times as much now in the present age,  (a)  houses and  (b)  brothers and sisters and  (c)  mothers and  (b’)  children and  (a’)  farms, along with persecutions;

A’   and in the age to come, eternal life.

31  “But many who are  (a)  first, will be  (b)  last; and the  (b’)  last,  (a’)  first.”

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 1    12:28-34:


A    28  And one of the scribes came and heard them arguing,

B    and recognizing that He had answered them well,  /  asked Him, “What commandment is the foremost of all?”   [Me:  A compliment]

C    29  Jesus answered,  /  “The foremost is, ‘HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD;  30  AND YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND, AND WITH ALL YOUR STRENGTH.’  31  “The second is this, ‘YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.’   /  There is no other commandment greater than these.

D    32  And the scribe said to Him, “Right, Teacher    [Me:  Positive acknowledgment]


B’    34  And when Jesus saw that he had answered intelligently,  /  He said to him, “You are not far from the kingdom of God.”  [Me:  A compliment]

A’    And after that, no one would venture to ask Him any more questions.


2   12:35-37:


A    35  And Jesus 

B    answering began to say, as He taught in the temple,

C    “How is it that the scribes say  /  that the Christ is the son of David  /  ?

D    36  “David himself said in the Holy Spirit,  /  ‘THE LORD SAID TO MY LORD,


D’   37  “David himself  /  calls Him ‘Lord‘;

C’   and so in what sense  /  is He his son  /  ?

B’   And the great crowd enjoyed listening

A’    to Him.


3   12:38-40:


38  And in His teaching He was saying:

A    “Beware

B    of the scribes

   who like to walk around in long robes,

   and like respectful greetings in the market places,

   39  and chief seats in the synagogues,

E’   and places of honor at banquets,

D’   40  who devour widows’ houses,

C’   and for appearance’s sake offer long prayers;

B’   these

A’    will receive greater condemnation.”



Here’s 3 chiasmi in a row from Mark 12. 

All 3 involve scribe(s).  The first chiasmus presents a lone scribe rather positively.  The scribe compliments Jesus and Jesus compliments him.  The second chiasmus presents Jesus as highly exalted, “sitting at the right hand of God”, victorious over his enemies.  The third chiasmus condemns the scribes for their sin and desire for status. 

Personally, I think the pattern presents a choice.  The center chiasmus describes who Jesus is (exalted).  The outside 2 chiasmi represents 2 types of scribes.  One represents a positive encounter.  The other represents ‘the negative’.  …  A little like the 2 crucified on either side of Jesus.  One positive.  The other negaive.  …  The first scribe is “not far from the kingdom of God” while the latter scribes “will recieve … condemnation”.  Quite the contrast.  It shows both the positive and the negative regarding Jesus and his Markan arch-enemies, the scribes. 

Personally, I think the negative/positive equation also extends to us – the attuitive and attentive reader.  Who, or which are we?  How do we treat/view Jesus?  Are we on the positive or negative side of the ledger?  Are we the good scribe or the ‘evil’ scribes?  Are we on this side of Jesus or that side of Jesus?  What is our choice?  Who do we say Jesus is? 



A few additional comments:

1)  I really like the contrast between the centers of the 2nd and 3rd chiasmi.  The center of 2nd chiasmus has Jesus in his rightful exalted position at the right hand of God, while the center of the 3rd chiasmus has the scribes wrongly seeking “chief seats” and “places of honor”.   Interesting contrast.  One is deserved (Jesus’ exalted position).  The other condemned (the scribes’s desire for ‘exalted’ position(s)).  …  In reality, I think there’s a little humor here.  In comparison to Jesus being seated at the right hand of God – in heaven, the scribes’s seeking positions in earthly synagogues and at earth-bound banquets seems, well, rather miniscule – relatively unimportant.  …  There really is no comparison.  One easily – EASILY (right hand of God in heaven vs. the best spot to sit at an earthly banquet) trumps the other. 

Wow.  Nice contrast.

2)  I like that the center of the center chiasmus describes Jesus the way it does:  (THE LORD SAID TO MY LORD,)  “SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND, UNTIL I PUT THINE ENEMIES BENEATH THY FEET.”‘  Overall, it’s the most powerful statement in all 3 chiasmi.  It’s worthy of the CENTRAL-central position.

3)  It’s also interesting to note how the centers of each chiasmus ‘match’ with their outsides.  

Nice chiasmi.  Interesting overall arrangement(s).

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A    35  And James and John, the two sons of Zebedee, came up to Him,

B    saying

C    to Him, “Teacher, we want You to do for us whatever we ask of You.”  36  And He said to them, “What do you want Me to do for you?” 

D    37  And they said to Him, “Grant

E    that we may sit in Your glory, one on Your right, and one on Your left.”

F    38  But Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking for. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?”

G    39  And they said to Him, “We are able.”

F’   And Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you shall drink; and you shall be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized.

E’   40  “But to sit on My right or on My left,

D’    this is not Mine to give;

C’    but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.”

B’   41  And hearing this,

A’    the ten began to feel indignant with James and John.

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In this entry I’ll be placing lots of small chiasmi.  Small chiasmi are not my primary focus so it may take some time to ‘fill this up’.




Old Testament:



A    God created man

B    in His own image,

B’   in the image of God

A’   He created him


A    This is the account of the heavens

B    and the earth

C    when they were created,

C’   in the day that the LORD God made

B’   earth

A’   and heaven.


A    8  But Noah  /  found favor

B    in the eyes of the Lord

C    9  These are the records of the generations of Noah.

D    Noah was a righteous man,

D’   blameless

C’   in his time  [Me: ‘among his peers’];

B’   with God

A’   Noah  / walked


A    “Whoever sheds

B    the blood

C    of man

C’   by man

B’   his blood

A’   shall be shed …”


Therefore he  [Me: Pharoah]  treated Abram well for her  [Me: Sarai’s]  sake; and gave him

A    sheep and oxen

B    and  [Me: male]  donkeys

C    and male  [Me: servants]

C’   and female servants

B’   and female donkeys

A’   and camels.

2 Samuel


The king was deeply moved and went up to the chamber over the gate and wept.  And thus he said as he walked,

A    “O my son,

B    Absalom,

A    my son, my son,

B    Absalom!

C    Would I had died instead of you,

B’    2  O Absalom,

A’    my son, my son!”



6  So Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite spoke out and said,

A    “I am young in years and you are old; Therefore I was shy and afraid to tell you what I think.

B    7  “I thought age should speak, And increased years should teach wisdom.

C    8  “But it is a spirit in man, And the breath of the Almighty gives them understanding.

B’   9  “The abundant in years may not be wise, Nor may elders understand justice.

A’   10  “So I say, ‘Listen to me, I too will tell what I think.’



A    The heavens

B    declare

C    the glory of God

C’   the work of his hands

B’   proclaim

A’   the sky.


A    1  Give the king Your justice, O God,

B    and Your righteousness to the king’s son. 

B’   2  May he judge Your people with righteousness

A’   and Your afflicted with justice.


A    Bless, O my soul,

B    the Lord

C    And all that is within me,

B’   the name of His holiness,

A’   bless, O my soul.



A    The wealth

B    of a rich man

C    is his fortress;

C’   the ruin

B’   of the poor

A’   is their poverty


A    19  He who is steadfast in righteousness will attain to life,

B    And he who pursues evil will bring about his own death.

B’   20  The perverse in heart are an abomination to the LORD,

A’   But the blameless in their walk are His delight.



A    Woe to those who call evil

B    good,

B’   and good

A    evil;

A    Who substitute darkness

B    for light

B’   and light

A’   for darkness;

A    Who substitute bitter

B    for sweet,

B’    and sweet

A’    for bitter!


A    “Render the hearts of this people insensitive,

B    Their ears dull,

C    And their eyes dim,

C’   Lest they see with their eyes,

B’   Hear with their ears,

A’   Understand with their hearts,

And return and be healed.”



A    1  The sin of Judah

B    is written down

C    with an iron stylus;

C’   with a diamond point

B’   it is engraved upon the tablet of their heart, and on the horns of their altars,

A’   2  As they remember their children, So they remember their altars and their Asherim By green trees on the high hills … 3 … your high places for sin



A    28  It will come about after this

B    That I will pour out My Spirit on all mankind;

C    And your sons and daughters will prophesy,

D    Your old men  /  will dream dreams,

D’   Your young men  /  will see visions.

C’   29  Even on the male and female servants

B’   I will pour out My Spirit

A’   in those days.



A    Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol?

B    Shall I redeem them from death?

B’   O Death, where are your thorns?

A’   O Sheol, where is your sting?



A    11  “Then I raised up some of your sons to be prophets

B    And some of your young men to be Nazirites.

C    Is this not so, O sons of Israel?” declares the LORD.

B’   12  “But you made the Nazirites drink wine,

A’   And you commanded the prophets saying, ‘You shall not prophesy!’


A    Let roll down

B    like waters

C    justice

C’   and righteousness

B’   like a stream

A’   ever flowing




New Testament:



A    “But many who are first

B    will be last;

B’   and the last,

A’   first.”


A    “And whoever exalts himself

B    shall be humbled;

B’   and whoever humbles himself

A’   shall be exalted.



34  And He summoned the crowd with His disciples, and said to them, “If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross and follow Me. 

A    35  For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel’s will save it. 

B    [Me: question:]  36  For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world, and forfeit his soul  /  ? 

B’   [Me: question:]  37  For what will a man give in exchange for his soul  /  ? 

A’   38  For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.”

10:29b, 30, 31

28  Peter began to say to Him, “Behold, we have left everything and followed You.”  29  Jesus said, “Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left

A    house

B    or brothers or sisters

C    or mother

C’   or father

B’   or children

A’   or farms,

for My sake and for the gospel’s sake,  30  but that he will receive a hundred times as much now in the present age,

A   houses

B    and brothers and sisters

C    and mothers

B’   and children

A’   and farms,

along with persecutions; and in the age to come, eternal life.  31  But many

A    who are first

B    will be last,

B’   and the last,

A’   first.”


And many spread their coats in the road, and others spread leafy branches which they had cut from the fields.  9  Those who went in front and those who followed were shouting:

A    “Hosanna!

B    Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord

B’   10  Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David;

A’   Hosanna in the highest!”



A    “No servant can serve two masters;

B    for either he will hate the one,

C    and love the other,

C’   or else he will hold to one,

B’   and despise the other.

A’   You cannot serve God and mammon.”



38  For I am convinced that

A    neither death,

B    nor life,

C    nor angels, nor rulers,

D    nor things present,

D’   nor things to come,

C’   nor powers

B’   39  nor height,

A’   nor depth,

nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

2 Corinthians


For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ,

A    that though He was rich,

B    yet for your sake He became poor,

B’   that you through His poverty

A’   might become rich.



15   We are Jews by nature and not sinners from among the Gentiles;

A   16   nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified

B   by the works of the Law

C   but through faith in Christ Jesus,

D   even we have believed in Christ Jesus,

C’   so that we may be justified by faith in Christ

B’   and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law

A’   no flesh will be justified.



A    8  For by grace you have been saved through faith;

B    and that not of yourselves,

C    it is the gift of God;

B’   9  not as a result of works,

A’   that no one should boast.



A    15  Some, to be sure, are preaching Christ even from envy and strife,

B    but some also from good will;

B’   16  the latter do it out of love, knowing that I am appointed for the defense of the gospel;

A’    17  the former proclaim Christ out of selfish ambition, rather than from pure motives, thinking to cause me distress in my imprisonment.

1 Thessalonians


A    Now the God of peace Himself,

B    sanctify you completely

C    and entirely your spirit and soul and body

B’   without blame

A’    at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

1 John


A    No one who is born of God

B    practices sin,

C    because His seed abides in him;

B’   and he cannot sin,

A’   because he is born of God.



“And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: He who is holy, who is true, who has the key of David,

A    who opens

B    and no one will shut,

B’   and who shuts

A’   and no one opens,

says this …

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