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Archive for the ‘Job’ Category


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A while back, Lindsay Kennedy, who authors the blog My Digital Seminary did a series of interviews with Joel Wingo, who teaches at Calvary Chapel Bible College, on the book of Job.  Lindsay and Joel think that the book of Job may have been written as a chiasmus.  Following is Linday’s series of posts and the outline of Joel’s chiasmus.  I haven’t had a chance to check it out yet (the longer a chiasmus, the more time and effort it takes to check out), but I thought the series intriquing enough to post anyway.  I’ve mentioned Lindsay and his blog before, in regard to a chiasmus for Job 1 :

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–  Is Job a chiasm?

–  Joel Wingo interview on Job: part 1

–  Joel Wingo interview on Job: part 2

–  Joel Wingo interview on Job: part 3

–  Joel Wingo on the book of Job: summary

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A. Prologue: Job blessed and righteous

B. Prologue: Job accused by Satan and destroyed

C. Dialogue: Job Laments (de-creation, order to chaos)

D. Dialogue: Preventative chastening (Eliphaz’s first speech)

E. Dialogue: Sin & retribution (three friends)

F. CENTRE: Wisdom is with God, not men (Job ch. 28)

E’. Dialogue: Sin & retribution (Job)

D’. Dialogue: Preventative chastening (Elihu)

C’. Dialogue: The LORD speaks (creation, chaos to order)

B’. Epilogue: Job vindicated by the LORD and restored

A’. Epilogue: Job blessed and righteous

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A couple additional diagrams of the chiasmus can be found in part 2 of Lindsay’s interview with Joel

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From the blogs Involuted Speculations and My Digital Seminary:

Here’s a summary of the chiasmus from the latter site:

A. Job’s righteousness asserted (1:1)
B. Job’s children (1:2)
C. Job’s wealth (1:3)
D. Job’s children feasting (1:4-5)
E. God’s dialogue with Satan (1:6-12)
D’. Job’s children feasting (1:13)
C’. The loss of Job’s wealth (1:14-17)
B’. The death of Job’s children (1:18-19)
A’. Job’s righteousness reasserted (1:20-22)

Nice chiasmus.  I like it when a book begins with a chiasmus (e.g., JoshuaColossians, 1 Thessalonians).  In this case, the chiasmus summarizes the backdrop to the book:  why Job suffers  …  Job’s righteousness in spite of suffering.

I particularly like the way the outsides (A/A’) present Job’s righteousness while the center (E) presents the ultimate source of the test.  In spite of what happens in the latter half of the chiasmus (D’ and C’), the chiasmus is surrounded by Job’s  justification.  …  Satan’s test is defeated.

The chiasmus has a nice half and half structure.  The story turns in a new direction at the center.

For more commentary, please see the links above.

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UPDATE:  In the comments section below, Scott Vanatter suggests that the center section (E) could be further subdivided chiastically:    E / F1 / F2-F3-F4-F5  /  F1′-F2′-F3′-F4′-F5′ / F1′ / E’.  Thank you Scott.  🙂

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A    1  There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job, and that man was blameless, upright, fearing God, and turning away from evil.

B    2  And seven sons and three daughters were born to him.

C    3  His possessions also were 7,000 sheep, 3,000 camels, 500 yoke of oxen, 500 female donkeys, and very many servants; and that man was the greatest of all the men of the east.

D    4  And his sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one on his day, and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and drink with them.  5  And it came about, when the days of feasting had completed their cycle, that Job would send and consecrate them, rising up early in the morning and offering burnt offerings according to the number of them all; for Job said, “Perhaps my sons have sinned and cursed God in their hearts.” Thus Job did continually.

E    6  Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came among them.  7  And the LORD said to Satan, “From where do you come?” Then Satan answered the LORD and said, “From roaming about on the earth and walking around on it.”  8  And the LORD said to Satan, “Have you considered My servant Job? For there is no one like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, fearing God and turning away from evil.”  9  Then Satan answered the LORD, “Does Job fear God for nothing?  10  “Hast Thou not made a hedge about him and his house and all that he has, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land.  11  “But put forth Thy hand now and touch all that he has; he will surely curse Thee to Thy face.”  12  Then the LORD said to Satan, “Behold, all that he has is in your power, only do not put forth your hand on him.” So Satan departed from the presence of the LORD.

D’   13  Now it happened on the day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house,

C’   14  that a messenger came to Job and said, “The oxen were plowing and the donkeys feeding beside them,  15  and the Sabeans attacked and took them. They also slew the servants with the edge of the sword, and I alone have escaped to tell you.”  16  While he was still speaking, another also came and said, “The fire of God fell from heaven and burned up the sheep and the servants and consumed them, and I alone have escaped to tell you.”  17  While he was still speaking, another also came and said, “The Chaldeans formed three bands and made a raid on the camels and took them and slew the servants with the edge of the sword; and I alone have escaped to tell you.”

B’   18  While he was still speaking, another also came and said, “Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house,  19  and behold, a great wind came from across the wilderness and struck the four corners of the house, and it fell on the young people and they died; and I alone have escaped to tell you.”

A’   20  Then Job arose and tore his robe and shaved his head, and he fell to the ground and worshiped.  21  And he said, “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, And naked I shall return there. The LORD gave and the LORD has taken away. Blessed be the name of the LORD.”  22  Through all this Job did not sin nor did he blame God.

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In this entry I’ll be placing lots of small chiasmi.  Small chiasmi are not my primary focus so it may take some time to ‘fill this up’.

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Old Testament:

Genesis:

1:27a

A    God created man

B    in His own image,

B’   in the image of God

A’   He created him

2:4

A    This is the account of the heavens

B    and the earth

C    when they were created,

C’   in the day that the LORD God made

B’   earth

A’   and heaven.

6:8-9

A    8  But Noah  /  found favor

B    in the eyes of the Lord

C    9  These are the records of the generations of Noah.

D    Noah was a righteous man,

D’   blameless

C’   in his time  [Me: ‘among his peers’];

B’   with God

A’   Noah  / walked

9:6a

A    “Whoever sheds

B    the blood

C    of man

C’   by man

B’   his blood

A’   shall be shed …”

12:16

Therefore he  [Me: Pharoah]  treated Abram well for her  [Me: Sarai’s]  sake; and gave him

A    sheep and oxen

B    and  [Me: male]  donkeys

C    and male  [Me: servants]

C’   and female servants

B’   and female donkeys

A’   and camels.

 Job

32:6-10

6  So Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite spoke out and said,

A    “I am young in years and you are old; Therefore I was shy and afraid to tell you what I think.

B    7  “I thought age should speak, And increased years should teach wisdom.

C    8  “But it is a spirit in man, And the breath of the Almighty gives them understanding.

B’   9  “The abundant in years may not be wise, Nor may elders understand justice.

A’   10  “So I say, ‘Listen to me, I too will tell what I think.’

Psalms

19:1

A    The heavens

B    declare

C    the glory of God

C’   the work of his hands

B’   proclaim

A’   the sky.

 72:1-2

A    1  Give the king Your justice, O God,

B    and Your righteousness to the king’s son. 

B’   2  May he judge Your people with righteousness

A’   and Your afflicted with justice.

103:1

A    Bless, O my soul,

B    the Lord

C    And all that is within me,

B’   the name of His holiness,

A’   bless, O my soul.

Proverbs

10:15

A    The wealth

B    of a rich man

C    is his fortress;

C’   the ruin

B’   of the poor

A’   is their poverty

11:19-20

A    19  He who is steadfast in righteousness will attain to life,

B    And he who pursues evil will bring about his own death.

B’   20  The perverse in heart are an abomination to the LORD,

A’   But the blameless in their walk are His delight.

Isaiah

5:20

A    Woe to those who call evil

B    good,

B’   and good

A    evil;

A    Who substitute darkness

B    for light

B’   and light

A’   for darkness;

A    Who substitute bitter

B    for sweet,

B’    and sweet

A’    for bitter!

6:10

A    “Render the hearts of this people insensitive,

B    Their ears dull,

C    And their eyes dim,

C’   Lest they see with their eyes,

B’   Hear with their ears,

A’   Understand with their hearts,

And return and be healed.”

Jeremiah

17:1-3

A    1  The sin of Judah

B    is written down

C    with an iron stylus;

C’   with a diamond point

B’   it is engraved upon the tablet of their heart, and on the horns of their altars,

A’   2  As they remember their children, So they remember their altars and their Asherim By green trees on the high hills … 3 … your high places for sin

Joel

2:28-29

A    28  It will come about after this

B    That I will pour out My Spirit on all mankind;

C    And your sons and daughters will prophesy,

D    Your old men  /  will dream dreams,

D’   Your young men  /  will see visions.

C’   29  Even on the male and female servants

B’   I will pour out My Spirit

A’   in those days.

Hosea

13:14

A    Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol?

B    Shall I redeem them from death?

B’   O Death, where are your thorns?

A’   O Sheol, where is your sting?

Amos

2:11-12

A    11  “Then I raised up some of your sons to be prophets

B    And some of your young men to be Nazirites.

C    Is this not so, O sons of Israel?” declares the LORD.

B’   12  “But you made the Nazirites drink wine,

A’   And you commanded the prophets saying, ‘You shall not prophesy!’

5:24

A    Let roll down

B    like waters

C    justice

C’   and righteousness

B’   like a stream

A’   ever flowing

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New Testament:

 Matthew

19:30

A    “But many who are first

B    will be last;

B’   and the last,

A’   first.”

23:12

A    “And whoever exalts himself

B    shall be humbled;

B’   and whoever humbles himself

A’   shall be exalted.

Mark

8:35-38

34  And He summoned the crowd with His disciples, and said to them, “If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross and follow Me. 

A    35  For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel’s will save it. 

B    [Me: question:]  36  For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world, and forfeit his soul  /  ? 

B’   [Me: question:]  37  For what will a man give in exchange for his soul  /  ? 

A’   38  For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.”

10:29b, 30, 31

28  Peter began to say to Him, “Behold, we have left everything and followed You.”  29  Jesus said, “Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left

A    house

B    or brothers or sisters

C    or mother

C’   or father

B’   or children

A’   or farms,

for My sake and for the gospel’s sake,  30  but that he will receive a hundred times as much now in the present age,

A   houses

B    and brothers and sisters

C    and mothers

B’   and children

A’   and farms,

along with persecutions; and in the age to come, eternal life.  31  But many

A    who are first

B    will be last,

B’   and the last,

A’   first.”

11:9b-10

And many spread their coats in the road, and others spread leafy branches which they had cut from the fields.  9  Those who went in front and those who followed were shouting:

A    “Hosanna!

B    Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord

B’   10  Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David;

A’   Hosanna in the highest!”

Luke

16:13

A    “No servant can serve two masters;

B    for either he will hate the one,

C    and love the other,

C’   or else he will hold to one,

B’   and despise the other.

A’   You cannot serve God and mammon.”

Romans

8:38-39a

38  For I am convinced that

A    neither death,

B    nor life,

C    nor angels, nor rulers,

D    nor things present,

D’   nor things to come,

C’   nor powers

B’   39  nor height,

A’   nor depth,

nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

2 Corinthians

8:9

For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ,

A    that though He was rich,

B    yet for your sake He became poor,

B’   that you through His poverty

A’   might become rich.

Ephesians

2:8-9

A    8  For by grace you have been saved through faith;

B    and that not of yourselves,

C    it is the gift of God;

B’   9  not as a result of works,

A’   that no one should boast.

Philippians

1:15-17

A    15  Some, to be sure, are preaching Christ even from envy and strife,

B    but some also from good will;

B’   16  the latter do it out of love, knowing that I am appointed for the defense of the gospel;

A’    17  the former proclaim Christ out of selfish ambition, rather than from pure motives, thinking to cause me distress in my imprisonment.

1 Thessalonians

5:23

A    Now the God of peace Himself,

B    sanctify you completely

C    and entirely your spirit and soul and body

B’   without blame

A’    at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

1 John

3:9

A    No one who is born of God

B    practices sin,

C    because His seed abides in him;

B’   and he cannot sin,

A’   because he is born of God.

Revelation

3:7

“And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: He who is holy, who is true, who has the key of David,

A    who opens

B    and no one will shut,

B’   and who shuts

A’   and no one opens,

says this …

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