Archive for the ‘Welch, John W.’ Category


Here I’m going back to the ‘same well’ as the post before.  From here.  (To be fair I’ll try to resist his paper from here on in.  :-).  It has many more chiasmi you may be interested in.)


A    1  Now I say, as long as the   (a)   heir is a   (b)   child, he does not differ at all from a   (c)   slave although he is owner of everything,

B    2  but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father.  3  So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world.

C    4  But when the fulness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman,

D    born under the Law,

D’   5  in order that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons.

C’   6  And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son

B’   into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!

A’   7  Therefore you are no longer a   (c’)   slave, but a   (b’)   son; and if a son, then an   (a’)   heir through God.


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From John W. Welch’s article, “Chiasmus in the New Testament”:  here.  Though I’ve changed it a bit.


A    3  We give thanks to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you,

B    4  since we heard

C    of your faith in Christ Jesus and the love which you have for all the saints;  5  because of the hope laid up for you in heaven,

 D     of which you previously heard in the word of truth, the gospel,  6  which has come to you,

E    just as   [kathos kai]   in all the world also

F    it is constantly bearing fruit and increasing,

E’   even as it has been   [kathos kai]   doing in you also

D’   since the day you heard of it and understood the grace of God in truth

C’   7  just as you learned it from Epaphras, our beloved fellow bond-servant, who is a faithful servant of Christ on our behalf  8  and he also informed us of your love in the Spirit.

B’   9  For this reason also, since the day we heard of it,

A’   we have not ceased to pray for you and to ask that you may be filled with the knowledge of His will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding,

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Chiasmus was not used exclusively by Biblical writers.  It was used by others as well. 

John W. Welch‘s book ”Chiasmus in Antiquity” is an excellent book for viewing possible chiastic structures from cultures outside of Israel.  It’s a good starting point for understanding chiasmus outside of the Bible.

Here are the chapter titles:

I particularly enjoy Welch’s cover which features the following chiastically arranged artwork.  Nice … :

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John W. Welch:   Criteria for Identifying and Evaluating the Presence of Chiasmus

Craig Blomberg:  Criteria for Detecting Extended Chiasmus  (Click on Section I)


John Welch lists 15 criteria, while Craig Blomberg lists 9.

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