Old Testament:


1  (Creation Week)      2:4 and 2:15-3:7  (The ‘Second’ Creation Story and The Fall)      6:5-7:1  (~Noah)     6:10-9:19  (The Flood Story)

Exodus:      6:2-8      33:12-17

Leviticus:      14:49-53      24:17-21

Numbers:      11:4-34      12:1-16 

Deuteronomy:      9:6-13  (The Giving of the Law)      12:1-32

Joshua:      1

2 Samuel:      1:19-27

2 Kings:      22:1-23:30

2 Chronicles:      5:11-6:3

Job:       The entire book?      1      32:6-10


3      12      18      19:1      22      37:1-7      49      52:1b-5a      58      62      67      76      89:27-39      103:1      150      Robert Alden’s ‘Chiastic Psalms’

Proverbs:      1:20-33      11:19-20      26:10-19      31:10-31  (The Virtuous Woman)

Song of Songs:      The entire book      2:8-17

Ecclesiastes:      11:1-12:2


1:18      1:21-26      2:3-5      3:1-8      5:20      6:10      28:15-18     56:1-8      56:9-12      60:1-3

Jeremiah:      5:1-31      10:1-11      17:1-3

Hosea:      13:14

Joel:      1:5-14      3:2-8

Amos:      2:11-12      5:1-17      5:24      8:11-9:15

Obadiah:      10-14


New Testament:

Matthew:      5:3-10  (The Beatitudes)     7:16-20      23:12      13:10-19


The entire book      1:1-13      1:21-28      2:1-3:6      2:27      3:20-35      3:22-30      5:1-6      10:17-31      10:35-41      12:28-34      12:35-37      12:38-40      13:4-23  (The Little Apocalypse)      13:24-27      13:4-37

Luke:      1:68-79      16:13      22:42

John:      5:19-30      17:1-5  (The Beginning of “The High Priestly Prayer”)

Acts:      2:1-21  (Pentecost)      2:22-36  (Peter Preaches Jesus’ Ressurection at Pentecost)

Romans:      2:7-10      10:9-10      11:33-35

1 Corinthians:      7: 20-24      11:3-7 and 8-11      13:8-13  (Paul on Love)      15:35-44

2 Corinthians:      8:9      12:1-5   

Galatians:      3:5-14      4:1-7      5:16-26  (The Fruit of the Spirit)

Ephesians:      1:2; 6:23-24      2:8-9      2:11-22      3:1-13      3:14-21

Philippians:      1:15-17

Colossians:      1:3-9      1:9-23

1 Thessalonians:      1-2  (Paul’s earliest writing)     5:23

2 Thessalonians:      3:6-12

1 Timothy:      3:16

2 Timothy:      1:15-18      2:8-10

Titus:      The entire book

Philemon:      The entire book

Hebrews:      12:1-2

James:      The entire book

1 Peter:      2:17

1 John:      3:9

2 John:      The entire book

Revelation:      3:7      12:1-17      21:1-5a


Examples of Small Chiasmi:

Tiny Chiasmi – ‘Here a Chiasmus, There a Chiasmus …’

Chiasmus Excerpt – “Narrative Criticism of the New Testament”


Additional Materials:

Recommended Readings and Sites

Chiasmus Verification Criteria



“Noah’s Ark”, by Edward Hicks, 1846


I read the Bible’s story of Noah and the flood the other day, in part because of the movie Noah coming out this weekend, and noticed that it might be a chiasmus. 

Here’s a simplified break-down:

A1/A’1:  Man is very evil.

A2/A’2:  (Therefore) God will destroy man. 

A3/A’3:  (But) Noah found favor with God   /  = Noah will build and escape in an ark.

B/B’:  These are the generations of Noah  /  =  3 sons.

C/C’:  Noah was righteous  /  = walked with God.

D:  Noah was blameless among his peers (ie., among mankind; among his generation).

If this is a chiasmus, then what is being emphasized is Noah’s righteousness … since it’s at the center. 

I like the image this chiasmus portrays.  In the chiasmus, Noah is surrounded by the evilness of the world – surrounded by evil men.  In a sense, this chiasmus – at least for me – evokes both a sense of danger (surrounded by evil mankind), and a sense of safety (the safety of the center; the safety of the coming ark?; perhaps foreshadowing the ark?).  Interestingly, in the chiasmus, Noah’s family (3 sons) are mentioned in-between the ‘outside’ and the ‘center’ of the chiasmus.  They are caught in no-man’s land, if you will.  Fortunately for them, they will get pulled into the center with Noah; into the safety of the ark.

The small chiasmi in A2 has God’s grief on the outside, with his plan to destroy the world in the center (it could also be structured as an  aba’b’  parallelism).  The small chiasmi in A’2 has the destruction of the world on the outside, with the reason for that destruction at its center.

I like the way the center and end of the chiasmus match, mentioning the righteousness of Noah compared to the rest of mankind.  I also like the contrast between the beginning and the end of the chiasmus – the continual evilness vs. the only one righteous. 

I guess the reason I first thought that this passage might be a chiasmus is the odd way the text went from the subject of the ‘evilness of man’ to the subject of ‘Noah’ and back to the subject of the ‘evilness of man’.  That back and forth didn’t seem quite ‘normal’.  It signaled at least the possibility that the writer was doing something chiastic.


Another possible ‘flood’ chiasmus – for Genesis 6:10-9:19 – can be found here.



1    5  Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually


a    6  And the LORD was angered that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart

b    7  And the LORD said,  /  “I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land – from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky;

a’   for I am sorry that I have made them.”

3    8  But Noah found favor in the eyes of the LORD.

B    9  These are the records of the generations of Noah.

C    Noah  /  was a righteous man,

D    blameless  //  in his time    [Me:  Hebrew: towledah];

C’   Noah  /  walked with God.    [Me:  "with God Noah walked"]

B’   10  And Noah became the father of three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.



11  Now the earth was corrupt in the sight of God, and the earth was filled with violence.  12  And God looked on the earth, and behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth.


a    2    13  Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before Me;

b    for the earth is filled with violence because of them;

a’   and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth.

3    14  “Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch.  15  “And this is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits.  16  “You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks.  17  “And behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish.  18  “But I will establish My covenant with you; and you shall enter the ark– you and your sons and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.  19  “And of every living thing of all flesh, you shall bring two of every kind into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female.  20  “Of the birds after their kind, and of the animals after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every kind shall come to you to keep them alive.  21  “And as for you, take for yourself some of all food which is edible, and gather it to yourself; and it shall be for food for you and for them.”  22  Thus Noah did; according to all that God had commanded him, so he did.  7:1  Then the LORD said to Noah, “Enter the ark, you and all your household; for you alone I have seen to be righteous before Me // in this time    [Me:  Hebrew: towledah].

A Chiasmus for Job?



A while back, Lindsay Kennedy, who authors the blog My Digital Seminary did a series of interviews with Joel Wingo, who teaches at Calvary Chapel Bible College, on the book of Job.  Lindsay and Joel think that the book of Job may have been written as a chiasmus.  Following is Linday’s series of posts and the outline of Joel’s chiasmus.  I haven’t had a chance to check it out yet (the longer a chiasmus, the more time and effort it takes to check out), but I thought the series intriquing enough to post anyway.  I’ve mentioned Lindsay and his blog before, in regard to a chiasmus for Job 1 :


Is Job a chiasm?

-  Joel Wingo interview on Job: part 1

Joel Wingo interview on Job: part 2

Joel Wingo interview on Job: part 3

Joel Wingo on the book of Job: summary


A. Prologue: Job blessed and righteous

B. Prologue: Job accused by Satan and destroyed

C. Dialogue: Job Laments (de-creation, order to chaos)

D. Dialogue: Preventative chastening (Eliphaz’s first speech)

E. Dialogue: Sin & retribution (three friends)

F. CENTRE: Wisdom is with God, not men (Job ch. 28)

E’. Dialogue: Sin & retribution (Job)

D’. Dialogue: Preventative chastening (Elihu)

C’. Dialogue: The LORD speaks (creation, chaos to order)

B’. Epilogue: Job vindicated by the LORD and restored

A’. Epilogue: Job blessed and righteous


A couple additional diagrams of the chiasmus can be found in part 2 of Lindsay’s interview with Joel

Chiasmus Pic – A Leaf

Single Leaf

Symmetry in Nature



VLUU L200  / Samsung L200


I found this chiasmus somewhere on the net a while ago, but for some reason I’ve lost the link.  Oh well, eventually I’ll find it and add an update.  :-)

Below is the outline from the ‘mysterious lost link’:

A (5:1-2)    They swear falsely (5:2)

B (5:3-9)    Shall I not punish them for these things? (5:9)

C (5:10-13)    Destroy them not wholly (5:10)

D (5:14-17)    I will bring against you a nation from afar (5:15)

C’ (5:18-19)    I will not wholly destroy you (5:18)

B’ (5:20-29)    Shall I not punish these things? (5:29)

A’ (5:30-31)    The prophets prophesy falsely (5:31)


I’ve changed the chiasmus a little bit.  I’ve expanded D to D E D’:

D    They will be consumed  [Me: Hebrew = "akal"]

E    I will bring against you a nation from afar (5:15)

D’   Everything will be devoured  [Me: Hebrew = "akal"]  / demolished


I think the center is quite strong.  It’s a scary thing to think that ‘a nation might be coming from afar’ to “consume”, “devour”, and “demolish” you.

There are some smaller matches within the chiasmus to perhaps take note of:  e.g., both B and B’ mention wildlife:  In B it’s a lion, wolf and leopard.  In B’ it’s birds;  both C and C’ question the actions of God. 

D’ is made up of a couple smaller chiasmi.  In the first chiasmus, a/a’ = ‘plant life’, while b/b’ = ‘animal/human life’ (i.e., breathing life).

So, on to the chiasmus …


A    5:1  “Roam to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and look now, and take note. And seek in her open squares, if you can find a man, if there is one who does justice, who seeks truth, then I will pardon her.  2  “And although they say, ‘As the LORD lives,’ Surely they swear falsely.”

B    3  O LORD, do not Thine eyes look for truth? Thou hast smitten them, but they did not weaken; Thou hast consumed them, but they refused to take correction. They have made their faces harder than rock; they have refused to repent.  4  Then I said, “They are only the poor, they are foolish; For they do not know the way of the LORD or the ordinance of their God.  5  “I will go to the great and will speak to them, for they know the way of the LORD, and the ordinance of their God.” But they too, with one accord, have broken the yoke and burst the bonds.  6  Therefore a lion from the forest shall slay them, a wolf of the deserts shall destroy them, a leopard is watching their cities. Everyone who goes out of them shall be torn in pieces, because their transgressions are many, their apostasies are numerous.  7  “Why should I pardon you? Your sons have forsaken Me And sworn by those who are not gods. When I had fed them to the full, they committed adultery and trooped to the harlot’s house.  8  “They were well-fed lusty horses, each one neighing after his neighbor’s wife.  9  “Shall I not punish these people,” declares the LORD, “And on a nation such as this shall I not avenge Myself?

   10  “Go up through her vine rows and destroy, but do not execute a complete destruction; strip away her branches, for they are not the LORD’S.  11  “For the house of Israel and the house of Judah have dealt very treacherously with Me,” declares the LORD.  12  They have lied about the LORD and said, “Not He; misfortune will not come on us; and we will not see sword or famine.  13  “And the prophets are as wind, and the word is not in them. Thus it will be done to them!”

D    14  Therefore, thus says the LORD, the God of hosts, “Because you have spoken this word, behold, I am making My words in your mouth fire and this people wood, and it will consume  / them

E    15  “Behold, I am bringing a nation against you from afar, O house of Israel,” declares the LORD. “It is an enduring nation, it is an ancient nation, a nation whose language you do not know, nor can you understand what they say.  16  “Their quiver is like an open grave, all of them are mighty men


a    17  “And they will devour your harvest and your food;

b    They will devour your sons and your daughters;

b’   They will devour your flocks and your herds;

a’   They will devour your vines and your fig trees;

a    They will demolish

b    your fortified cities,

b’   in which you trust,

a’   with the sword.

C’   18  “Yet even in those days,” declares the LORD, “I will not make you a complete destruction.  19  “And it shall come about when they say, ‘Why has the LORD our God done all these things to us?’ then you shall say to them, ‘As you have forsaken Me and served foreign gods in your land, so you shall serve strangers in a land that is not yours.’

B’   20  “Declare this in the house of Jacob and proclaim it in Judah, saying,  21  ‘Hear this, O foolish and senseless people, who have eyes, but see not; who have ears, but hear not.  22  ‘Do you not fear Me?’ declares the LORD. ‘Do you not tremble in My presence? For I have placed the sand as a boundary for the sea, an eternal decree, so it cannot cross over it. Though the waves toss, yet they cannot prevail; though they roar, yet they cannot cross over it.  23  ‘But this people has a stubborn and rebellious heart; they have turned aside and departed.  24  ‘They do not say in their heart, “Let us now fear the LORD our God, who gives rain in its season, both the autumn rain and the spring rain, who keeps for us the appointed weeks of the harvest.”  25  ‘Your iniquities have turned these away, and your sins have withheld good from you.  26  ‘For wicked men are found among My people, they watch like fowlers lying in wait; they set a trap, they catch men.  27  ‘Like a cage full of birds, so their houses are full of deceit; therefore they have become great and rich.  28  ‘They are fat, they are sleek, they also excel in deeds of wickedness; they do not plead the cause, the cause of the orphan, that they may prosper; and they do not defend the rights of the poor.  29  ‘Shall I not punish these people?’ declares the LORD, ‘On a nation such as this shall I not avenge Myself?’

A’   30     “An appalling and horrible thing Has happened in the land:  31  the prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests rule on their own authority; and My people love it so! But what will you do at the end of it?




The following excerpt is from James L. Resseguie‘s book, “Narrative Criticism of the New Testament”, p. 58-60.  The excerpt is part of the book’s explanation for  “Chiasm (Chiasmus)”.

The book can be found here at Google Books, and here at Amazon

The examples are short, but I enjoyed them.  I particularly liked his treatment of Luke 22:42 and Ephesians 1:2; 6:23-24.  Hopefully you’ll enjoy them as well.  :-)

The word chiasm is derived from the Greek letter chi (written X), which symbolizes the crossover pattern of words, phrases, clauses, or ideas that are repeated in reverse order.  The simplest type of chiasm is A B B’ A’ – a structure that comes full circle by highlighting key concepts in reverse order.  A chiastic pattern in Mark 2:27, for instance, keeps the reader’s or hearer’s attention focused on the main concepts.

A  The sabbath was made

B  for humankind

B’  not humankind

A’  for the sabbath.

Chiasms may draw attention to a theological or ideological perspective.  Jesus’ prayer in the garden of Gethsemane is an example of literary artistry at its best.  The literary form reinforces the theological perspective.  In Luke 22:42, for example:

A  Father, if you are willing.

B  remove this cup from me;

B’  yet not my will

A’  but yours be done.

The first person singular (me, my) is placed within the second person singular (you, yours), which visually underscores that Jesus’ will is completely enclosed within the will of the Father.  This becomes a model prayer for all: our will needs to be conformed to God’s will, not the other way around.

Paul uses chiasms to wrap together an entire book with key theological concepts.  In the Letter to the Ephesians he brackets his correspondence with the words “grace” and “peace” (also in 2 Thess. 1:2 and 3:16, 18).

A    Grace to you

B  and peace

B’  Peace be to the whole community. …

A’  Grace be with all who have an undying love for our Lord Jesus Christ

(Eph. 1:2; 6:23, 24)

Paul comes full circle, underscoring an important theological perspective: where there is grace, there is peace, and where there is peace, there is evidence of God’s grace.  Paul also uses interlocking chiasms to highlight the mystery of the Christian faith.  In 1 Tim. 3:16, for example, an interlocking pattern  explains “the mystery of our religion.”

[Jesus] was revealed in flesh,

vindicated in spirit,

seen by angels,

proclaimed among Gentiles,

believed in throughout the world,

taken up in glory.

Two sets of overlapping chiasms bring two separate worlds together – this world and the world above.  One set – flesh (A), spirit (B), angels (B’), Gentiles (A’) – is joined by a second set – angels (A) Gentiles (B), world (B’), glory (A’).  The interlocking pattern suggests that Jesus brings together in balanced harmony two worlds that were separated or at odds with each other.




33  The LORD further spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,  34  “When you enter the land of Canaan, which I give you for a possession, and I put a mark of leprosy on a house in the land of your possession,  35  then the one who owns the house shall come and tell the priest, saying, ‘Something like a mark of leprosy has become visible to me in the house.’  36  “The priest shall then order that they empty the house before the priest goes in to look at the mark, so that everything in the house need not become unclean; and afterward the priest shall go in to look at the house.  37  “So he shall look at the mark, and if the mark on the walls of the house has greenish or reddish depressions, and appears deeper than the surface;  38  then the priest shall come out of the house, to the doorway, and quarantine the house for seven days.  39  “And the priest shall return on the seventh day and make an inspection. If the mark has indeed spread in the walls of the house,  40  then the priest shall order them to tear out the stones with the mark in them and throw them away at an unclean place outside the city.  41  “And he shall have the house scraped all around inside, and they shall dump the plaster that they scrape off at an unclean place outside the city.  42  “Then they shall take other stones and replace those stones; and he shall take other plaster and replaster the house.  43  “If, however, the mark breaks out again in the house, after he has torn out the stones and scraped the house, and after it has been replastered,  44  then the priest shall come in and make an inspection. If he sees that the mark has indeed spread in the house, it is a malignant mark in the house; it is unclean.  45  “He shall therefore tear down the house, its stones, and its timbers, and all the plaster of the house, and he shall take them outside the city to an unclean place.  46  “Moreover, whoever goes into the house during the time that he has quarantined it, becomes unclean until evening.  47  “Likewise, whoever lies down in the house shall wash his clothes, and whoever eats in the house shall wash his clothes.  48  “If, on the other hand, the priest comes in and makes an inspection, and the mark has not indeed spread in the house after the house has been replastered, then the priest shall pronounce the house clean because the mark has not reappeared.

A    49  “He shall take for the cleansing

B    of the house,

C    [Me: all the supplies needed for atonement:]  two birds and cedar wood and a scarlet string and hyssop,

D    [Me:  one bird slaughtered:]  50  and he shall slaughter the one bird in an earthenware vessel over running water.

E    51  Then he shall take the cedar wood and the hyssop and the scarlet string,

F    with the live bird,

G    and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, as well as in the running water,

H    and sprinkle the house seven times.

H’   52  He shall thus cleanse the house

G’   with the blood of the bird and with the running water,

F’   along with the live bird

E’   and with the cedar wood and with the hyssop and with the scarlet string.

D’   [Me: one bird let go:]  53  And he shall let the live bird go free outside the city into the open field.

C’   So he shall make atonement

B’   for the house,

A’   and it shall be clean.”



This chiasmus was inspired by the one found here, p. 139. 

I’ve changed the chiasmus a bit.  I’ve combined a couple of sections and expanded the center.  I’ve also developed a number of smaller chiasmi that I think exist within the larger one.

This particular chiasmus comes right at the end of the book of Amos.  The chiasmus ends on a positive note – a return from exile.

A nice summary of the book of Amos can be found here


Here’s a brief outline of the chiasmus:

A/A’:  Both these sections begin with “Behold, days are coming“.  …  In A, ‘food’ is scarce.  In A’, food is plentiful. 

B/B’:  Both these sections begin with “In that day“.  In B, the people “faint” and ‘fall’ and ‘do not rise again’.  In B’, the “fallen” are ‘raised up’.  B’ reverses B.

C/C’:  Both these sections refer to God’s watching “eyes”, a “shaking”, and a coming slaying/killing by “the sword”.  A main point of C is that no one will be able to escape.  The same idea is present in C’: “As grain is shaken in a sieve, not a kernel will fall to the ground”. 

D:  “God” bookends the center section.  In-between these ‘bookends’, God’s power is highlighted. 

There’s a definite building in the first half, from A to D.  In A, God ‘voice’ goes silent.  In B, a ‘fall’ is prophesied, and is tied to the crime of idolatry (b/b’).  In C, the punishment is enacted (eg., a “shaking”; a slaying by the “sword”).  Finally, in D, God’s power is emphasized – God has the authority and power to act.  …  …  In the second half, the author matches C with C’ (a “shaking” and a “sword”), and finally ends his chiasmus with two sections, B’ and A’, foretelling a future ‘lifting up’ and return from exile. 

Interestingly, this chiasmus is full of geographical notes, which is fitting, since the chiasmus is all about the movement of a people (exile and return). 


8:1  Thus the Lord GOD showed me, and behold, there was a basket of summer fruit.  2  And He said, “What do you see, Amos?” And I said, “A basket of summer fruit.” Then the LORD said to me, “The end has come for My people Israel. I will spare them no longer.  3  “The songs of the palace will turn to wailing in that day,” declares the Lord GOD. “Many will be the corpses; in every place they will cast them forth in silence.”  4  Hear this, you who trample the needy, to do away with the humble of the land,  5  saying, “When will the new moon be over, So that we may sell grain, And the sabbath, that we may open the wheat market, To make the bushel smaller and the shekel bigger, And to cheat with dishonest scales,  6  So as to buy the helpless for money And the needy for a pair of sandals, And that we may sell the refuse of the wheat?”  7  The LORD has sworn by the pride of Jacob, “Indeed, I will never forget any of their deeds.  8  “Because of this will not the land quake And everyone who dwells in it mourn? Indeed, all of it will rise up like the Nile, And it will be tossed about, And subside like the Nile of Egypt.  9  “And it will come about in that day,” declares the Lord GOD, “That I shall make the sun go down at noon And make the earth dark in broad daylight.  10  “Then I shall turn your festivals into mourning And all your songs into lamentation; And I will bring sackcloth on everyone’s loins And baldness on every head. And I will make it like a time of mourning for an only son, And the end of it will be like a bitter day.


A    11  “Behold, days are coming,” declares the Lord GOD,

*    “When I will send a famine on the land  [Me: a famine = 'a lack of food' - i.e., e.g., food is hard to find] 

a    - not a famine for bread or a thirst for water, but rather for hearing the words of the LORD

b    12  “And people will stagger

c    from sea to sea,

c    And from the north even to the east;

b’   They will go to and fro

a’   to seek the word of the LORD,

*’   But they will not find it.


B    13  “In that day,

a    the beautiful virgins And the young men  /  will faint from thirst.  [Me: Literally:  a  will faint -  b  the virgins beautiful -  b'  and the young men -  a'  with thirst.]

b    14  “As for those  /  who swear by the guilt  //  of Samaria,

b’   Who say,  /  ‘As your god lives,  //  O Dan,’ And, ‘As the way of  //  Beersheba  //  lives,’

a’   They  //  will fall and not rise again.”



a    9:1  I saw the Lord standing beside the altar, and He said, “Smite the capitals so that the thresholds will shake, and break them on the heads of them all! 

b    Then I will slay the rest of them with the sword. 

c    They will not have a fugitive who will flee, Or a refugee who will escape. 

d    [Me:  Hiding low]  2  “Though they dig into Sheol,  /  From there shall My hand take them;

e    [Me:  Hiding high]  And though they ascend to heaven,  / From there will I bring them down

e’   [Me:  Hiding high]  3  “And though they hide on the top of Carmel,  /  I will search them out and take them from there;

d’   [Me:  Hiding low]  And though they conceal themselves from My eye on the floor of the sea,  /  from there I will command the serpent  [Me: sea monster?]  and it will bite them

c’   4  “And though they go into captivity before their enemies,

b’   from there I will command the sword that it slay them.

a’   And I will set My eyes against them for evil and not for good.”



a    5  And the Lord GOD of hosts,


i    He who touches   a   the land   b   so that it melts;   b’   all shall mourn   a’   who dwell in it

ii    And all of it rises up like the Nile And subsides like the Nile of Egypt; 


i’   6   a   He who builds   b   in the heavens His staircase,   b’   And His vaulted dome over the earth   a’   has founded;

ii’   He who calls for the waters of the sea And pours them out on the face of the earth,

a’   The LORD is His name.



a    7  “Are you not as the sons of Ethiopia to Me,

b    O sons of Israel?”

c    declares the LORD.

b’   “Have I not brought up Israel

a’   from the land of Egypt,

(And the Philistines from Caphtor and the Arameans from Kir?) 

a    8  “Behold, the eyes of the Lord GOD are on the sinful kingdom,  /  And I will destroy it from the face of the earth;

b    Nevertheless, I will not totally destroy the house of Jacob,”

c    Declares the LORD

b’   9  “For behold, I am commanding, And I will shake the house of Israel among all nations As grain is shaken in a sieve, but not a kernel will fall to the ground. 

a’   10  “All the sinners of My people  /  will die by the sword, those who say, ‘The calamity will not overtake or confront us.’


B’   11  “In that day,

a    I will raise up the fallen booth of David

b    And wall up

c    it’s breaches;

c’   and it’s ruins

b’   I will raise up,

a’  And rebuild it as in the days of old

12  That they may possess the remnant of Edom And all the nations who are called by My name,” Declares the LORD who does this.


A’   13  “Behold, days are coming,” declares the LORD, “When the plowman will overtake the reaper And the treader of grapes him who sows seed; When the mountains will drip sweet wine, And all the hills will be dissolved.  14  “Also I will restore the captivity of My people Israel, And they will rebuild the ruined cities and live in them, They will also plant vineyards and drink their wine, And make gardens and eat their fruit.  15  “I will also plant them on their land, And they will not again be rooted out from their land Which I have given them,” Says the LORD your God.


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