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Old Testament:

Genesis:

1  (Creation Week)      2:4 and 2:15-3:7  (The ‘Second’ Creation Story and The Fall)      6:5-7:1  (~Noah)     6:10-9:19  (The Flood Story)      17:1-17

Exodus:      6:2-8      33:12-17

Leviticus:      14:49-53      24:17-21

Numbers:      11:4-34      12:1-16

Deuteronomy:      9:6-13  (The Giving of the Law)      12:1-32      22:13-29

Joshua:      1

2 Samuel:      1:19-27

2 Kings:      22:1-23:30

2 Chronicles:      5:11-6:3

Job:       The entire book?      1      32:6-10

Psalms:

3      12      18      19:1      22      37:1-7      49      52:1b-5a      58      62      67      70      76      89:27-39      103:1      150      Robert Alden’s ‘Chiastic Psalms’

Proverbs:      1:20-33      11:19-20      26:10-19      31:10-31  (The Virtuous Woman)

Song of Songs:      The entire book      2:8-17

Ecclesiastes:      11:1-12:2

Isaiah:

1:18      1:21-26      2:3-5      3:1-8      5:20      6:10      28:15-18     56:1-8      56:9-12      60:1-3

Jeremiah:      5:1-31      10:1-11      17:1-3

Hosea:      13:14

Joel:      1:5-14      3:2-8

Amos:      2:11-12      5:1-17      5:24      8:11-9:15

Obadiah:      10-14

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New Testament:

Matthew:      5:3-10  (The Beatitudes)     7:16-20      23:12      13:10-19

Mark:

The entire book      1:1-13      1:21-28      2:1-3:6      2:27      3:20-35      3:22-30      5:1-6      10:17-31      10:35-41      12:28-34      12:35-37      12:38-40      13:4-23  (The Little Apocalypse)      13:24-27      13:4-37

Luke:      1:68-79      4:16b-20      16:13      22:42

John:      5:19-30      17:1-5  (The Beginning of “The High Priestly Prayer”)

Acts:      2:1-21  (Pentecost)      2:22-36  (Peter Preaches on Jesus’ Resurrection at Pentecost)

Romans:      2:5b-11      10:9-10      11:33-35      14:13-23

1 Corinthians:      1:19-29      7: 20-24      11:3-7 and 8-11      13:8-13  (Paul on Love)      15:1-20      15:35-44

2 Corinthians:      8:9      12:1-5

Galatians:      3:5-14      4:1-7      5:16-26  (The Fruit of the Spirit)

Ephesians:      1:2; 6:23-24      2:8-9      2:11-22      3:1-13      3:14-21

Philippians:      1:15-17

Colossians:      1:3-9      1:9-23

1 Thessalonians:      1-2  (Paul’s earliest writing)     5:23

2 Thessalonians:      3:6-12

1 Timothy:      3:16

2 Timothy:      1:15-18      2:8-10

Titus:      The entire book

Philemon:      The entire book

Hebrews:      12:1-2

James:      The entire book

1 Peter:      2:17

1 John:      3:9

2 John:      The entire book

Revelation:      3:7      12:1-17      21:1-5a

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Examples of Small Chiasmi:

Tiny Chiasmi – ‘Here a Chiasmus, There a Chiasmus …’

Chiasmus Excerpt – “Narrative Criticism of the New Testament”

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Additional Materials:

Recommended Readings and Sites

Chiasmus Verification Criteria

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deuteronomy

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From the book, “Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy”, by Stephen K. Sherwood.  The book and chiasmus can be found here at Google books – p. 268.  The book can also be found here at Amazon.

Here’s a couple quotes:

Wenham and McConville (1980) call attention to structural elements that tie these verses together:  …  …  3. the six punishments are arranged in chiastic order; and 4. the six cases are arranged in two groups of three each – a triadic division that is used in both Leviticus and Deuteronomy.

Chiastic ordering of punishments:

19    A    damages of one hundred shekels to father, no divorce

21    B    woman executed

22    C    man and woman executed

24    C’   man and woman executed

25    B’   man executed

29    A’   damages of fifty shekels to father, no divorce

“The combination of parallel paneling and chiasmus give this section a notable coherence and compactness suggestive of careful drafting”

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A    13  “If any man takes a wife and goes in to her and then turns against her,  14  and charges her with shameful deeds and publicly defames her, and says, ‘I took this woman, but when I came near her, I did not find her a virgin,’  15  then the girl’s father and her mother shall take and bring out the evidence of the girl’s virginity to the elders of the city at the gate.  16  “And the girl’s father shall say to the elders, ‘I gave my daughter to this man for a wife, but he turned against her;  17  and behold, he has charged her with shameful deeds, saying, “I did not find your daughter a virgin.” But this is the evidence of my daughter’s virginity. ‘And they shall spread the garment before the elders of the city.  18  “So the elders of that city shall take the man and chastise him,  19  and they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver and give it to the girl’s father, because he publicly defamed a virgin of Israel. And she shall remain his wife; he cannot divorce her all his days.

   20  “But if this charge is true, that the girl was not found a virgin,  21  then they shall bring out the girl to the doorway of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her to death because she has committed an act of folly in Israel, by playing the harlot in her father’s house; thus you shall purge the evil from among you.

C    22  “If a man is found lying with a married woman, then both of them shall die, the man who lay with the woman, and the woman; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel.

C’   23  “If there is a girl who is a virgin engaged to a man, and another man finds her in the city and lies with her,  24  then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city and you shall stone them to death; the girl, because she did not cry out in the city, and the man, because he has violated his neighbor’s wife. Thus you shall purge the evil from among you.

B’   25  “But if in the field the man finds the girl who is engaged, and the man forces her and lies with her, then only the man who lies with her shall die.  26  “But you shall do nothing to the girl; there is no sin in the girl worthy of death, for just as a man rises against his neighbor and murders him, so is this case.  27  “When he found her in the field, the engaged girl cried out, but there was no one to save her.

A’   28  “If a man finds a girl who is a virgin, who is not engaged, and seizes her and lies with her and they are discovered,  29  then the man who lay with her shall give to the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall become his wife because he has violated her; he cannot divorce her all his days.


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iran-temples-photography-mohammad-domiri-231

The above pic came from here.


 

Judges Gavel

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The following chiasmus is from Douglas Moo’s commentary, “Romans: The NIV Application Commentary: From Biblical Text to Contemporary Life”.  The commentary can be found here at Google Books, and here at Amazon.  Douglas’ website is here.

Here’s a quote:

God Judges Every Human Being Impartially on the Same Basis (2:6-11)

This important paragraph supports a point that is implicit, but vital, to Paul’s indictment of self-righteous Jews in 2:1-5:  God assesses Jews and Gentiles on the same basis.  In effect, Paul argues, there is a level playing field when it comes to God’s ultimate verdict.  The Jew, therefore, simply by virtue of being a Jew cannot claim immunity from judgment.  The argument of these verses is clear and logical, following a pattern we label chiasm.  This word comes from the name for the Greek letter that looks much like our “X”.  It describes a structure in which the basic sequence follows an A-B-B’-A’ pattern.  Note how verses 6-11 fall into such a pattern:

A   God will judge everyone according to his works (v. 6)

B   People who do good will attain eternal life (v .7)

C   People who do evil will suffer wrath (v. 8)

C’  Wrath for those who do evil (v. 9)

B’  Glory for those who do good (v. 10)

A’  God judges impartially (v. 11)

Sometimes in a chiasm, the main point comes at the center.  In this case, however, the main point appears at the outer edges.

Moo’s last point is worth considering.  The main point is not always at the center.  In the end, it’s up to the discretion of the writer.  The chiastic writer has options.

I’ve refined Moo’s chiasmus a little bit by adding the following lower-case connections:  a bb’ a’, a bb’ a’, a bb’ a’.

I would also like to point out the phrase, “of the Jew first and also the Greek”, which occurs twice in the chiasmus.  Interestingly, the phrase appears at the end of the two matches: B/B’ (regarding good) and C/C’ (regarding evil).  Even though the two occurrences of the phrase do not appear chiastically balanced overall, they are still reasonably / logically placed within the chiasmus.

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2:1  Therefore you have no excuse, everyone of you who passes judgment, for in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things.  2  And we know that the judgment of God rightly falls upon those who practice such things.  3  But do you suppose this, O man, when you pass judgment on those who practice such things and do the same yourself, that you will escape the judgment of God?  4  Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and tolerance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance?  5  But because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart you are storing up wrath for yourself in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment

A

a    5  of God,

b    6  who WILL RENDER TO EACH PERSON ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS:

B

a    7  to those who by perseverance in doing good

b    seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life;

C

a    8  but to those who are selfishly ambitious and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness,

b    wrath and indignation.

C’

b’   9  There will be tribulation and distress

a’   for every soul of man who does evil – of the Jew first and also the Greek,

B ‘

b’   10  but glory and honor and peace

a’   to everyone who does good – to the Jew first and also the Greek. 

A’

b’   11  for there is no partiality

a’   with God.

 

 

 


SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA

A painting on wood, by Julia Stankova

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This is a nice little chiasmus.  The center, v. 18-19, is likely based on Isaiah 61:1-2, a messianic passage:

1  The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me,
Because the Lord has anointed me
To bring good news to the afflicted;
He has sent me to bind up the broken-hearted,
To proclaim liberty to captives
And freedom to prisoners;
2  To proclaim the favorable year of the Lord

Interestingly, there’s no mention of ‘healing blindness’ in the above passage, even though it’s at the center of Luke’s chiasmus.  Nevertheless, healing blindness is used elsewhere in Isaiah, including the following messianic passage:

“I am the LORD, I have called You in righteousness, I will also hold You as a covenant to the people, as a light to the nations, to open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from the dungeon and those who dwell in darkness from the prison.”  Is 42:6-7.

I think it’s fitting to have healing of blindness at the center of this chiasmus.  Not only did Jesus heal people of their physical blindness, He also healed people of their spiritual blindness.  The center serves double duty.  The spiritual aspect of Jesus’ job was ultimately at the core of his ministry: opening peoples’ eyes to who He was and what He came to do.

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14  And Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about Him spread through all the surrounding district.  15  And He began teaching in their synagogues and was praised by all.  16  And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up; and as was His custom,

A    He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath,

B    and stood up to read.

C    17  And the book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to Him.

D    And He opened the book and found the place where it was written, 

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18  The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me,

E    Because He anointed Me to preach the gospel to the poor.

F    He has sent Me to proclaim release  /  to the captives,

G    And recovery of sight to the blind,

F’   To set free  /  those who are oppressed

E’   19  To proclaim the favorable year of the Lord.” 

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D’   20  And He closed the book,

C’   gave it back to the attendant

B’   and sat down;

A’   and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on Him. 

21  And He began to say to them, Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.”

 

 


Business colleagues shaking hands

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This chiasmus is from Grant R. Osborne’s book, “Romans”.  The chiasmus can be found here at Google books, page 366.  The book can also be found here at Amazon.

I’ve creating a new center, F. 

F focuses on peace with both God and man.  The new center reminds me of Jesus’ words in Mark 12:29-31, where the two social spheres of God and man (‘the vertical and the horizontal’) are emphasized:

28  And one of the scribes came and heard them arguing, and recognizing that He had answered them well, asked Him, “What commandment is the foremost of all?”  29  Jesus answered, “The foremost is, ‘HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD;  30  AND YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND, AND WITH ALL YOUR STRENGTH.’  31  “The second is this, ‘YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.”

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A    Judging (v. 13a)

B    Stumbling block (v.13b)

C    Clean/unclean (v.14)

D    Destroying (v. 15)

E    Peace and unity (vv 16-18)

E’   Peace and unity (v. 19)

D’   Destroying (v. 20a)

C’   Clean/unclean (v. 20b)

B’   Stumbling block (v. 21)

A’   Judging (vv. 22-23)

… Several have noted a chiastic pattern here.  Perhaps the most comprehensive is Dunn (1988b:816 …

This section addresses the strong, who should be leading the way to establishing unity in the church by opening themselves up to the “weaker” brothers and sisters.  Neither side should stand in judgment over the other, for God alone is the judge of all, and he has accepted both groups (vv. 3, 10).  In a terrific play on words, Paul tells the strong that instead of “judging” (krino) the weak, they must “decide” (krino) not to put any stumbling block or obstacle in … [the] way of the “weak” Christians.  Rather than negative judgment, they must be characterized by positive discernment.  The two words are virtually synonymous.  A stumbling block is that which causes someone to fall into sin.  Similarly,an obstacle derives from the concept of “trapping something in a snare” and therefore is used in the LXX of falling into sin.  So it came to mean “an obstacle in coming to faith and a cause of going astray,” a transgression that leads to destruction, thus something that destroys faith and causes apostasy.

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A    13  Therefore let us not judge one another anymore,

B    but rather determine this– not to put an obstacle or a stumbling block  /  in a brother’s way.

C    14  I know and am convinced in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean in itself; but to him who thinks anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean.

D    15  For if because of food your brother is hurt, you are no longer walking according to love. Do not destroy with your food him for whom Christ died.

E    16  Therefore do not let what is for you a good thing be spoken of as evil;  17  for the kingdom of God is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit.

F    18  For he who in this way serves Christ is acceptable to God and approved by men.

E’   19  So then let us pursue the things which make for peace and the building up of one another.

D’   20  Do not tear down the work of God for the sake of food.

C’   All things indeed are clean,  /  but they are evil for the man who eats and gives offense.

B’   21  It is good not to eat meat or to drink wine, or to do anything by which your brother  /  stumbles.

A’   22  The faith which you have, have as your own conviction before God.  Happy is he who does not condemn himself in what he approves.  23  But he who doubts is condemned if he eats – because his eating is not from faith; and whatever is not from faith is sin.


crucifixion

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I think this is a chiasmus.  It requires some commentary, but for now I thought I would just post it.  :-)

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1  (For the choir director. A Psalm of David; for a memorial.)

A    a  O Godb  hasten to deliver me!

B    a  O LORD,  /  b  hasten to my help!

C    2  Let those be ashamed and humiliated

D    Who seek my life;

E    Let those be turned back and dishonored Who delight in my hurt.

E’   3  Let those be turned back because of their shame Who say, “Aha, aha!

D’   4  Let all who seek Thee

C’   rejoice and be glad in Thee – And let those who love Thy salvation say continually, “Let God be magnified.”

B’   5  But I am afflicted and needyb’  Hasten to me,  /  a’  O God!

A’   b’  Thou art my help and my deliverera’  O LORDdo not delay.

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The end of the chiasmus also appears to be a small chiasmus:

a    5b  Hasten to me,

b    O God!

c    Thou art my help and my deliverer;

b’   O LORD,

a’   do not delay.


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Photography-by-Kai-Ziehl-26

By Kai Ziehl.

More of his pics are here.

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