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Old Testament:

Genesis:

1  (Creation Week)      1:27a      2:4 and 2:15-3:7  (The ‘Second’ Creation Story and The Fall)      6:5-7:1  (~Noah)     6:10-9:19  (The Flood Story)      8:22, 9:6a, 9:9-17, 10:1-24      17:1-17

Exodus:      6:2-8      33:12-17

Leviticus:      14:49-53      24:17-21

Numbers:      11:4-34      12:1-16

Deuteronomy:      8      9:6-13  (The Giving of the Law)      12:1-32      22:13-29

Joshua:      1

2 Samuel:      1:19-27

2 Kings:      22:1-23:30

2 Chronicles:      5:11-6:3

Job:       The entire book?      1      32:6-10

Psalms:

3      12      18      19:1      22      37:1-7      46      49      52:1b-5a      58      62      67      70      76      89:27-39      103:1      150      Robert Alden’s ‘Chiastic Psalms’

Proverbs:      1:20-33      11:19-20      26:10-19      31:10-31  (The Virtuous Woman)

Song of Songs:      The entire book      2:8-17

Ecclesiastes:      11:1-12:2

Isaiah:

1:18      1:21-26      2:3-5      3:1-8      5:20      6:10      28:15-18     56:1-8      56:9-12      60:1-3

Jeremiah:      5:1-31      10:1-11      17:1-3

Hosea:      13:14

Joel:      1:5-14      3:2-8

Amos:      2:11-12      5:1-17      5:24      8:11-9:15

Obadiah:      10-14

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New Testament:

Matthew:      5:3-10  (The Beatitudes)     7:16-20      23:12      13:10-19

Mark:

The entire book      1:1-13      1:21-28      2:1-3:6      2:27      3:20-35      3:22-30      5:1-6      8:35-38     10:17-31      10:35-41      11:9b-10      12:28-34      12:35-37      12:38-40      13:4-23  (The Little Apocalypse)      13:24-27      13:4-37

Luke:      1:68-79      4:16b-20      16:13      22:42

John:      5:19-30      17:1-5  (The Beginning of “The High Priestly Prayer”)

Acts:      2:1-21  (Pentecost)      2:22-36  (Peter Preaches on Jesus’ Resurrection at Pentecost)

Romans:      2:5b-11      10:9-10      11:33-35      14:13-23

1 Corinthians:      1:19-29      7: 20-24      11:3-7 and 8-11      13:8-13  (Paul on Love)      15:1-20      15:35-44

2 Corinthians:      8:9      12:1-5

Galatians:      3:5-14      4:1-7      5:16-26  (The Fruit of the Spirit)

Ephesians:      1:2; 6:23-24      2:8-9      2:11-22      3:1-13      3:14-21

Philippians:      1:15-17

Colossians:      1:3-9      1:9-23

1 Thessalonians:      1-2  (Paul’s earliest writing)     5:23

2 Thessalonians:      3:6-12

1 Timothy:      3:16

2 Timothy:      1:15-18      2:8-10

Titus:      The entire book

Philemon:      The entire book

Hebrews:      12:1-2

James:      The entire book

1 Peter:      2:17      3:16-4:5

1 John:      3:9

2 John:      The entire book

Revelation:      3:7      12:1-17      21:1-5a

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Examples of Small Chiasmi:

Tiny Chiasmi – ‘Here a Chiasmus, There a Chiasmus …’

Chiasmus Excerpt – “Narrative Criticism of the New Testament”

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Additional Materials:

Recommended Readings and Sites

Chiasmus Verification Criteria

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071-1

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From the book “Deuteronomy”, by Gary Harlan Hall, p. 163.  Available at Amazon.

Here’s a quote and outline from the book:

Deuteronomy 8 is one of the most carefully constructed sermons in the entire book [Me: of Deuteronomy], making the most of the rhetorical device of chiastic structure.  The sermon clearly develops a line of thought up to verse 11, which states the main idea and marks the focus of the chiasm.  The second half develops away from the focal point through a repetition of the same details as found in the first half.  …

Introduction: 1

A.  Manna to test you, so remember – 2-3

B.  God led you in the wilderness – 4-5

C.  The blessings of the land – 6-9

D. Satisfaction brings praise – 10

E.  Do not forget – 11

D’.  Satisfaction brings a warning – 12a

C’.  The blessings of the good land – 12b-14

B’.  Leading in the wilderness – 15

A’.  The manna to test you, so remember – 16-18

E’.  Do not forget – 19-20

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I’ve made a number of changes.  The center went from an E to a double G/G’.

I’ve taken the beginning introduction and matched it with the end E’, creating a brand new A/A’.  Both A1 and A’1 match the center (A1 and G’ refer to commandments, while A’1 and G’ refer to remembering).  Having the beginning and end match the center is a common chiastic technique.  A2 is a blessing, while A’2 is a curse. Whether the people are blessed or cursed depend on their obedience to God’s commandments.  The beginning, center, and end gives us the main point of the chiasmus:  obeying God’s commandments.

I’ve also created a new D/D’.  These sections reflect the people’s hearts, or minds.  They contrast.  In D, the people fear God.  In D’ the people forget God.  …  D and D’ are placed between sections on the wilderness and the promised land.

Overall, I think this is a pretty nice chiasmus.

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A   

1    1  “All the commandments that I am commanding you today you shall be careful to do,

2    that you may live and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the Lord swore to give to your forefathers. 

B   

1    2  You shall remember all the way which the Lord your God has led you in the wilderness these forty years,   a   that He might humble you, testing you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not.  3  He humbled you and let you be hungry,   b   and fed you with manna which you did not know, nor did your fathers know,

2    [Me:  ~Reliance on self vs. reliance on God; the importance of God]    that He might make you understand that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of the Lord

C    [Me: "forty years" = wilderness.  See v. 1: "in the wilderness these forty years"]    4  Your clothing did not wear out on you, nor did your foot swell these forty years.  5  Thus you are to know in your heart that the Lord your God was disciplining you just as a man disciplines his son. 

D    Therefore, you shall keep the commandments of the Lord your God, to walk in His ways and to fear Him.

E    For the Lord your God is bringing you into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and springs, flowing forth in valleys and hills;  8  a land of wheat and barley, of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey;  9  a land where you will eat food without scarcity, in which you will not lack anything; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills you can dig copper

F    10  When you have eaten and are satisfied,

G    [Me: Respect God]    you shall bless the Lord your God for the good land which He has given you.

G’   [Me: Do not disrespect God]    11  “Beware that you do not forget the Lord your God by not keeping His commandments and His ordinances and His statutes which I am commanding you today

F’   12  otherwise, when you have eaten and are satisfied,

E’   and have built good houses and lived in them,  13  and when your herds and your flocks multiply, and your silver and gold multiply, and all that you have multiplies

D’   14  then your heart will become proud and you will forget the Lord your God

C’   who brought you out from the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.  15  He led you through the great and terrible wilderness, with its fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty ground where there was no water; He brought water for you out of the rock of flint. 

B’  

1    16  In the wilderness   b’   He fed you manna which your fathers did not know,   a’   that He might humble you and that He might test you, to do good for you in the end. 

2   [Me:  ~Reliance on self vs. reliance on God; the importance of God]   17  Otherwise, you may say in your heart, ‘My power and the strength of my hand made me this wealth.’  18  But you shall remember the Lord your God, for it is He who is giving you power to make wealth, that He may confirm His covenant which He swore to your fathers, as it is this day. 

A’  

1    19  It shall come about if you ever forget the Lord your God and go after other gods and serve them and worship them,

2    I testify against you today that you will surely perish20  Like the nations that the Lord makes to perish before you, so you shall perish; because you would not listen to the voice of the Lord your God.


rest-here_esther-simpson

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The following chiasmus is from here.

I’ve made a few changes.  I’ve changed his A to an A/B and his A’ to a B’/A’.  I’ve moved the end of his B section into C (my D1).  And finally,  I’ve created a spot of paralleling in his C and C’ sections (which is now my D1/D2/D’1/D’2). D1 and D’1 are negative descriptions of destruction, while D2 and D’2 are positive descriptions of peace and healing.

Here’s a quote offering a little more explanation:

Like most psalms, Psalm 46 originated in the life of the Israelite community. It was sung and recited long before it was ever written down, it’s poetic style shaped by confidence in God’s protection from threats, whether from other nations or “Mother Nature.”  In the face of a long history of threats and set backs faced by the Jewish community, God was with them, offering his provision and protection.

Robert Alden created a chiasm of Psalm 46 which pulls out some interesting features from its verses:

1      A  God is refuge.

2              B  No fear.

3-4                         C  God rules over natural calamities.

5                                       D  God is here.

6a                                               E  Nations rage.

6b                                               E  God speaks.

7                                       D  God is here.

8-9                          C  God rules over political calamities.

10                 B  Be still.

11        A  God is refuge.

Notice (B) “No fear” and “be still” are complementary, while (E) “nations rage” and “God speaks” contrast humanity’s actions with God’s actions. Verse 7 echoes verse 5, “God is here” (D), as though it were being underscored.  In verse 10, God sends a powerful message to the nations–to be still and submit to his reign.  … …  [H]e commands us all to “be still”– a quiet reminder that our ultimate confidence and security is in the power and presence of God.  Only then can we truly rest in his presence.

 

For the choir director.  A Psalm of the sons of Korah, set to Alamoth.  A Song.

A    1  God is our refuge and strength,

B    a very present help in trouble. 

C    2  Therefore we will not fear,

D

1    though the earth should change and though the mountains slip into the heart of the sea3  though its waters roar and foam, though the mountains quake at its swelling pride.  Selah. 

2    4  There is a river whose streams make glad the city of God, the holy dwelling places of the Most High. 

E    5  God is in the midst of her,  /  she will not be moved; God will help her when morning dawns

F    6  The nations made an uproar,  /  the kingdoms tottered;

F’   He raised His voice,  /  the earth melted

E’   7  The Lord of hosts is with us;  /  the God of Jacob is our stronghold. Selah. 

D’  

1   8  Come, behold the works of the Lord, who has wrought desolations in the earth

2   9  He makes wars to cease to the end of the earth; He breaks the bow and cuts the spear in two; He burns the chariots with fire

C’   10  Cease striving and know that I am God – I will be exalted among the nations, I will be exalted in the earth.” 

B’   11  The Lord of hosts is with us;

A’   the God of Jacob is our stronghold. Selah.


stock-footage-reading-the-book-of-genesis-bible

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There are quite a few chiasmi in Genesis.  I was reading through Genesis 8-10 the other day and noticed the following six:

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8:22

20  Then Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.  21  The Lord smelled the soothing aroma; and the Lord said to Himself, “I will never again curse the ground on account of man, for the intent of man’s heart is evil from his youth; and I will never again destroy every living thing, as I have done.

A   

22  While the earth remains,

B    [Me:  moving from cooler time of the year to warmer time of the year?  Seedtime to harvest?:]

a    Seedtime

b    and harvest,

C   

c    And cold

d    and heat,

C’  

d’   And summer

c’   and winter,

B’  

b’  (d”)  And day

a’   (c”)  and night

A’   Shall not cease.”

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9:6a:

A    “Whoever sheds

B    the blood

C    of man

C’   by man

B’   his blood

A’   shall be shed …”

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9:9-17:

8  Then God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him, saying, 

A

a    9  “Now behold, I Myself do establish My covenant with you and with your descendants after you;  

b    10  and with every living creature

c    that is with you,

d    the birds, the cattle, and every beast of the earth

c’   with you - of all that comes out of the ark,

b’   even every beast of the earth. 

a’   11  I establish My covenant with you;

B    and all flesh shall never again be cut off by the water of the flood, neither shall there again be a flood to destroy the earth.” 

C    12  God said, “This is the sign of the covenant which I am making between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all successive generations;  13  I set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and the earth.  14  It shall come about, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow will be seen in the cloud,  15  and I will remember My covenant, which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh;

B’   and never again shall the water become a flood to destroy all flesh

A’   16 When the bow is in the cloud, then I will look upon it, to remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth.”  17  And God said to Noah, This is the sign of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that is on the earth.”

[Me:  There is a match between the center and the end, a common feature in chiasmus: bow in the cloud; remembering.  At the same time, the author is able to match A' with A via his ending comment, "... the covenant which I established between Me and all flesh that is on the earth".]

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10:1-24

1 Now these are the records of the generations of

A    Shem,

B    Ham,

C    and Japheth, the sons of Noah; and sons were born to them after the flood. 

C’   2  The sons of Japheth were Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal and Meshech and Tiras.  …  …

B’   6  The sons of Ham were Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.  …  …

A’   21  Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born. 22 The sons of Shem were Elam and Asshur

a    and Arpachshad

b    and Lud and Aram.

b’   23  The sons of Aram were Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash.

a’   24  Arpachshad became the father of Shelah …


yume1600x1200

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The pic is from here

Its meaning is “dream”.

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Dream of Ink Brush Calligraphy

In prayer:
quiet opening,
my artery is a thin
shadow on paper—
margin of long grass,
ruderal hair, sister to this
not yet part of our bodies
your lyric corpus of seed
in rough drafts of pine ash,
chaogao or grass calligraphy
in rough drafts of pine ash—
your lyric corpus of seed
not yet part of our bodies:
ruderal hair, sister to this
margin of long grass,
shadow on paper,
my artery is a thin
quiet opening
in prayer.

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The poem was written by Karen An-Hwei Lee:

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karen-an-hwei-lee-448

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The poem can be found here, where you can listen to it.

Karen’s website is here.

 


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This particular chiasmus comes from here.  The attribution at the bottom of the page is to:  Craig S. Keener, the IVP Bible Background Commentary, New Testament, Intervarsity Press, Downes Grove, I, Illinois, 1993.

The book can be found here at Google books, and here at Amazon.

I like the theme of salvation at the center.  It makes the center strong.

I think D/D’ is interesting.  It seems one of the purposes of Jesus’ ‘making proclamation to the spirits in prison’ (D) may have been to have ‘angels, authorities, and powers’ subjected to Himself (D’).  I also like the implied match between Hades below and Heaven above.

There’s a lot of concepts packed in here: judgment, our suffering/witness, Jesus’ suffering, Hades/Heaven, ordering of power, salvation … .  Plenty to contemplate.  Nice.

Here’s the summary from the book:

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 1 Peter 3.16 4.5

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(A?)    13  Who is there to harm you if you prove zealous for what is good?  14  But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled,  15  but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence;   

A    16  and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered,  /  those who revile your good behavior in Christ will be put to shame. 

B    17  For it is better, if God should will it so, that you suffer  /  for doing what is right rather than for doing what is wrong. 

C    18  For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death  /  in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; 

D    [Me: Jesus goes to Hades]  19  in which also He went and made proclamation to the spirits now in prison

E    20  who once were disobedient, when the patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through the water. 

E’   21  Corresponding to that, baptism now saves you—not the removal of dirt from the flesh, but an appeal to God for a good conscience—through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 

D’   22  who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, after angels and authorities and powers had been subjected to Him

C’   4:1 Therefore, since Christ has suffered  in the flesh,

B’   arm yourselves also with the same purpose – because he who has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin,  2  so as to live the rest of the time in the flesh no longer for the lusts of men, but for the will of God

A’   3  or the time already past is sufficient for you to have carried out the desire of the Gentiles, having pursued a course of sensuality, lusts, drunkenness, carousing, drinking parties and abominable idolatries.  4  In all this, they are surprised that you do not run with them into the same excesses of dissipation, and they malign you;  /  but they will give account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead. 

For the gospel has for this purpose been preached even to those who are dead, that though they are judged in the flesh as men, they may live in the spirit according to the will of God. 


deuteronomy

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From the book, “Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy”, by Stephen K. Sherwood.  The book and chiasmus can be found here at Google books – p. 268.  The book can also be found here at Amazon.

Here’s a couple quotes:

Wenham and McConville (1980) call attention to structural elements that tie these verses together:  …  …  3. the six punishments are arranged in chiastic order; and 4. the six cases are arranged in two groups of three each – a triadic division that is used in both Leviticus and Deuteronomy.

Chiastic ordering of punishments:

19    A    damages of one hundred shekels to father, no divorce

21    B    woman executed

22    C    man and woman executed

24    C’   man and woman executed

25    B’   man executed

29    A’   damages of fifty shekels to father, no divorce

“The combination of parallel paneling and chiasmus give this section a notable coherence and compactness suggestive of careful drafting”

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A    13  “If any man takes a wife and goes in to her and then turns against her,  14  and charges her with shameful deeds and publicly defames her, and says, ‘I took this woman, but when I came near her, I did not find her a virgin,’  15  then the girl’s father and her mother shall take and bring out the evidence of the girl’s virginity to the elders of the city at the gate.  16  “And the girl’s father shall say to the elders, ‘I gave my daughter to this man for a wife, but he turned against her;  17  and behold, he has charged her with shameful deeds, saying, “I did not find your daughter a virgin.” But this is the evidence of my daughter’s virginity. ‘And they shall spread the garment before the elders of the city.  18  “So the elders of that city shall take the man and chastise him,  19  and they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver and give it to the girl’s father, because he publicly defamed a virgin of Israel. And she shall remain his wife; he cannot divorce her all his days.

   20  “But if this charge is true, that the girl was not found a virgin,  21  then they shall bring out the girl to the doorway of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her to death because she has committed an act of folly in Israel, by playing the harlot in her father’s house; thus you shall purge the evil from among you.

C    22  “If a man is found lying with a married woman, then both of them shall die, the man who lay with the woman, and the woman; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel.

C’   23  “If there is a girl who is a virgin engaged to a man, and another man finds her in the city and lies with her,  24  then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city and you shall stone them to death; the girl, because she did not cry out in the city, and the man, because he has violated his neighbor’s wife. Thus you shall purge the evil from among you.

B’   25  “But if in the field the man finds the girl who is engaged, and the man forces her and lies with her, then only the man who lies with her shall die.  26  “But you shall do nothing to the girl; there is no sin in the girl worthy of death, for just as a man rises against his neighbor and murders him, so is this case.  27  “When he found her in the field, the engaged girl cried out, but there was no one to save her.

A’   28  “If a man finds a girl who is a virgin, who is not engaged, and seizes her and lies with her and they are discovered,  29  then the man who lay with her shall give to the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall become his wife because he has violated her; he cannot divorce her all his days.

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